Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grown in Brooklyn Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, what a splendid name for this book. Most people that have not read this book might only think that this book is about a tree growing in Brooklyn. Not knowing that this book is really about Francie Nolan. Francie is the tree that is growing in Brooklyn. She is growing up so quickly, not because she wants to, but because she has too. Francie was basically forced to grow up in her mid-teens. She had to help support her family. The world that Francie lived in also contributed to her growth into womanhood. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grows in Brooklyn takes place during the early 1900's, in the slums of Williamsburgs , Brooklyn. The slums are where the Nolan family lives their whole lives, although Francie later moves out and travels into New York City for her well paying job. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Nolan family consists of four strong hearted people. The Nolan's are very unique for a family who lives in the slums of Brooklyn; they are a pretty decent family of four. Kate is the beautiful young mother of Francie and Neeley and the wife of Johnny. Kate holds a janitress job to keep her family together and from starving, she is basically the sole provider for the family. Johnny, Kate's drunk husband, is considered to be a good man, but he is nothing but a drunk who, has an off and on again job as a free lance singer/waiter. Their daughter, Francie, who is the main character of the book, is a very intelligent young woman. Francie always wants to do the best in everything that she tries. Last but not least is the youngest Nolan, Neeley. He is Francie's younger brother. He is also loved the most by his mamma. Neeley is Katies Favorite and this is quite obvious. The Nolan's are unique. They have hope that life will get better. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Nolan family have an old tin-can bank that they keep in a closet in their house. Katie was told to have this bank to accumulate money to buy land so she could pass it on to her children. They put as much in as they can afford every day, and it slowly accumulates little by little. This book shows that, a penny saved, is a penny earned. And that every little bit counts. It makes you realize that money is not everything.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Initially the study of lifespan development rose due to DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to understand human evaluation (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Developmental psychology is concerned with the changes of people during their life span including motor skill changes, problem solving changes, moral understanding changes, but it is originally concerned with these changes during infancy and childhood (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Without any doubts, Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), are two major contributors who have affected developmental psychology with their theories on human development. According to Lerman (1996), Piaget and Vygotsky belong to two different traditions; Piaget belongs to the constructivism perspective that sees learning as construction and Vygotsky to the activity theory perspective that sees learning as an appropriation. According to Piaget, cognitive development results from the development of the brain, acquiring new abilities and experiences, thus he separated development into stages (as cited in Santrock, 2008). Piaget developed four stages the sensori-motor stage (0-2 years) where the infant is trying to make sense of the world, and acquires the development of object permanence (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). The pre-operational stage (2-7 years) where language development, animism, egocentrism and the use of symbols hallmark this stage (Shaffer &Kipp, 2007). The concrete operational stage (7-11 years) where children start classifying objects and are able to conserve and think logically about objects and events (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). And the formal operational stage (11 years and beyond) where children develop hypothetico-deductive reasoning and imaginary audience and believe in the uniqueness of oneself and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). On the other hand, Vygotsky developed his sociocultural theory indicating that cognitive development is promoted in a Ã¢â¬Å"socioculturalÃ¢â¬ context which influences the form it takes (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). Furthermore, Vygotsky indicated that many of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s most important cognitive functions develop from social interactions with parents, teachers and other more competent associates. Moreover, Vygotsky elaborated his Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) where the child is the learner and can manage independently and the difference between what the children can learn with guidance of a more skilled and competent partner and expect further cognitive growth, by internalising the help of the skilled partner (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). Starting on the debate and trying to shed light upon the different approaches on development from Piaget and Vygotsky, the differences on egocentric speech and language will be analyzed. Vygotsky in one of his main books published in 1934 Ã¢â¬Å"Thought and LanguageÃ¢â¬ wrote about Piaget Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology owes a great deal to Jean Piaget. It is not an exaggeration to say that he revolutionised the study of child language and thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Vygotsky, 1962, p.9). Though, even if he exalted Piaget he differed his approach around the concepts of egocentric speech and egocentrism. In line with Vygotsky (1962, p. 14-15), the outcome of the observations of Piaget led him to the conclusion that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s speech can be divided only in two distinct entities, the egocentric speech and socialized speech. The difference between them is due to their functions, during egocentric speech the child talks only about him having no interest in other people and expecting no answers, whereas socialized speech attempts exchanges with other people. According to Vygotsky, the conclusions of Piaget showed that the majority of preschool children talk is egocentric, though when the child reaches school age, egocentric speech declines (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 16).Vygotsky differed his view from Piaget on egocentric speech believing that it has a specific function and this function other than its communicative role, it also serves as a thinking tool and as a tool to solve problems (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 18). Piaget and Vygotsky seem to agree that inner speech develops from egocentric speech which leads to logical thinking, though Vygotsky highlighted language as an apparatus of thought other than another way of expression. On the other hand, Piaget awarded to language a less significant role than Vygotsky toward the development of thought (Piaget, 1970). Moreover, Vygotsky praised the use of language and egocentric speech as thinking tools which promote development, but Piaget disagrees indicating that Vygotsky could not understand that egocentrism could be a main obstacle for learning, concluding that language can also reduce learning and development (Piaget, 1962). Another main issue where Vygotsky and Piaget collide is the role of the social and the role of the individual in learning. Piaget indicates that teaching is divided in two sides, the one is the rising individual, and the other side consists of social, intellectual, and moral values that the educator attempts to transmit (Piaget, 1969). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s aim was to make children capture the solution of the problem on their own strength, self-regulation, and their own experiences rather than receiving help from any rules or from a more skilled individual (Piaget, 1969). Thus, Piaget points out that learning is not social, and that the individual on his own entirely captures the surrounding knowledge. On the contrary, Vygotsky who belongs to the activity theory indicates that learning is an active process from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, and that the child can duplicate culturally accumulated knowledge with assistance from social support (Vygotsky, 1962). The outstanding difference in learning is that Piaget perceives the individual as the onset of learning and also children can learn through repetitive interaction and experience with the environment, moreover the egocentric speech serves as a tool for logical thinking, though it can also intricate the meaning (Piaget, 1969). On the other hand, Vygotsky is emphasising more that an individual (child) cannot produce knowledge and learn without the verbal interaction and activity of other probably more skilled individuals (Vygotsky, 1962). Thus, Piaget seems to combine and emphasise on both the individual side and the social side, whereas Vygotsky emphasises more on one side, the social side. Additionally, Vygotsky proposes that knowledge arrives from the outside, on the contrary though Piaget points out that learning lies on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s innate capability. Piaget was mainly affected from his biological roots which influenced his approach on human development, and Vygotsky was influenced by the Marxist tradition forming his own ideas about human development and that is where the foundational difference lies on these two approaches on the essence of humanness (Newman & Holzman, 1993). On the contrary to Piaget who has strongly settled in a biological worldview and asserts human development in the adaptation to the environment, Vygotsky emphasizes on the centrality of transformative collaborative practices by individuals who do not adapt to their environment but as a whole transform it, and through this transformation also alter themselves and acquire their own status and essence (Newman & Holzman, 1993). For Piaget what promotes cognitive growth is disequilibration, a revolution made from the connection of two elemental processes. Concurrences with the world were either adapted, assimilated to anterior existing mental functions, or prevailing functions were altered to accommodate them. According to Piaget, there is this double connection between assimilation and accommodation highlighting that this double connection leads to cognitive growth, but none of these two functions can serve on its own the purpose of cognitive growth (Bruner, 1990). On the other hand, Vygotsky did not attribute to the mind this logical calculus. For Vygotsky, the mind is determined to consist of processes for attributing experience with meaning. Vygotsky indicated that meaning does not entirely depend upon language but also on the ability to apprehend the cultural context where language is used (Bruner, 1990). Vygotsky believed that cognitive growth would be promoted by acquiring essential order culturally allocated symbolic structures, with each of these symbolic structures having the ability to blend or switch pre-existing knowledge (Bruner, 1990). Additionally, these essential orders are manufactured by culture and cognitive growth is not formed by the biological perspective unless they are aided by language and culture which rely upon endured social interactions. Piaget was mainly concerned with the balanced order of mental development, whereas Vygotsky was merely concerned with how other more skilled individuals or the society implement the cultural patterning that constructs the process of cognitive growth and makes development achievable. According to VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s general genetic law of cultural development any function the childe displays during his cultural development will appear two times. Firstly, it will appear in the social stage and then on the psychological stage. For Vygotsky, the unit of analysis is the individual engaging in social activities rather than psychological activity of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, arguing with PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s position that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development must precede learning, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s position was that the development process lies behind the learning process. These two major theorists seem to disagree ontologically about learning due to the fact that Piaget is a constructionist and Vygotsky belongs to the activity theory. Ontologically constructivism indicates that there is no reality that exists outside of human thinking, whereas the activity theory points out that for everything that exists it does include physical characteristics. Furthermore, constructivism indicates that knowledge and thinking are inextricably on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s brains and they just construct from their personal experiences. On the contrary, the activity theory indicates that knowledge is formed from a social negotiation involving people. Another issue which differs VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach from PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s is that the Piagetian theory does not provoke that children perform tasks that are far away from their cognitive capabilities. The teacher simply prepares the environment for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental level of mental operations, concluding that the child is limited by its own developmental stage. On the other hand, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s zone of proximal development welcomes the child to attempt beyond its potential mental capabilities. Both theorists have contributed with their approaches of human development. The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and the Russian Lev Vygotsky consequently influenced from their environments and cultures and also from their beliefs in constructivism and the activity theory formed their approaches on human development were in some parts seem to agree, but have major differences between them. Most critiques reflecting on these two approaches seem to weigh more on Piaget due to the fact that several developmental tasks he applied on children especially in the pre-operational stage are not clearly stated and it seemed that Piaget often underestimated childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capabilities. Piaget claimed that pre-operational children cannot decentre on the Ã¢â¬Ëthree mountain taskÃ¢â¬â¢ though new studies have shown that by altering the objects with something more familiar, children were able to decentre. Also in some other Piagetian tasks children performed better than expected by Piaget. And that has revealed that VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the socio-cultural aspect seems more appropriate than PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s constructivist approach. REFERENCE LIST: Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan Development (4th. Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Lerman, S. (1996). Ã¢â¬ËIntersubjectivity in Mathematics Learning: A Challenge to the Radical Constructivist Paradigm?Ã¢â¬â¢ Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Vol. 27 2, pp.211-223. Newman, F., & Holzman, L. (1993). Lev Vygotsky: Revolutionary Scientist. London: Routledge. Piaget, J. (1962). Comments on VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s critical remarks concerning Ã¢â¬ËThe Language and Thought of the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËJudgement and Reasoning in the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢. Cambridge: Massachusetts, The M.I.T. Piaget, J. (1969). Psykologi og paedagogik Copenhagen: Hans Reitzell. Piaget, J. (1970). Genetic Epistemology. New York: Columbia University. Santrock, J., W. (2008). A topical approach to life-span development (4th Edition). New York City: McGraw- Hill. Shaffer, D., R., & Kipp, K. (2007). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence (7th Edition). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Vygotsky, L., S. (1962). Thought and Language Cambridge: Massachusetts, The M.I.T. View as multi-pages
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Success of IKEA The secret of success of IKEA is the IKEA-feeling, the culture. The company has Swedish origins, and its no accident that the IKEA logo is blue and yellow. The IKEA concept, like its founder, was born in SmÃ ¥land. The people are famous for working hard, living on slender means and using their heads to make the best possible use of the limited resources they have. Like the founder Ingvar Kamprad said Ã¢â¬Å¾wasting resources is a mortal sinÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"This characterizes the whole company itself. This way of doing things is at the heart of the IKEA approach to keeping prices low. But quality is not compromised for the sake of cost. Swedenhas an international reputation for safety and quality you can rely on, and IKEA retailers take prideÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It sells a lifestyle; it has the power of taste-forming. The Swedish IKEA thought, that the winning of the American market will be advantageous in the competition. But this decision didnÃ¢â¬â¢t in volve an easy changing, because we mentioned IKEA has very standardised product range, but the American customers have different lifestyle, tastes and needs. So they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept these traditional products. The IKEA knew, it has one choice to winning this market, and this is the adaptation. So IKEA has redesigned approximately fifth of its product range. For example the American lifestyle needs far bigger products: bigger glasses, bigger kitchen cupboard. The American consumers missed the matching bedroom suites too. It was very important to adapt to the American culture too. A few examples: So the IKEA in America offer more typical American foods and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide very much special Swedish foods. The homepage shows typical American people with rotundity. People hate waiting in lines, IKEA must have been changed the store layout then they can accommodated a new cash registers. Interesting, that this expansion affected Europe. More and more products were added to the European product range too. The main IKEA concept is Ã¢â¬Å¾young people of all agesÃ¢â¬ means that the company lures customers of all ages from the very young to the elders as well, who think and like to live their lives as young people, who have imagination,Show MoreRelatedSuccess of Ikea1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat factors account for the success of IKEA? IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s Success can be attributed to many factors, but can be classified into two broad categories: product differentiation and cost leadership. Product Differentiation IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s simple yet elegant yet elegant Scandanavian designs reflect solid consumer awareness, as its designs resonated well with the consumer. Cost Leadership In our opinion, IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s cost leadership was the strongest contributor to its success. 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Additionally, I will discuss which is more important to it maintaining and developing relationships in the U.S. market. Notably, IKEA founder Ingvar Kamprad, started the business in 1943, as a mail-order business . However, in 1948Read MoreIkea Essay777 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesList the various ways in which IKEA has managed its global environment over time. IKEA was founded by Ingvar Kamprad in 1943. Today IKEA is one of the largest furniture chains in the world with three hundred and fifteen stores operating in twenty seven countries. IKEA has managed its Global Environment in the three major ways which has contributed to its great success. These ways are as follows: 1. Ingvar Kamprad was able to identify the changing trend in consumer wants and adapted his productsRead MoreIkea s Successful Entry Into The Furniture Retail Market918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesneeds were not being addressed in the furniture retail market; in which, IKEA took the initiative to distinguish themselves from their competitors by providing and selling good quality furniture at lower prices. Second, execution by itÃ¢â¬â¢s founder Ingvar Kamprad to sell their products for Ã¢â¬Å"cheaperÃ¢â¬ by commissioning local manufacturers to produce IKEA products (Allen, n.d.). The internationalization importance relating to IKEA is imperative to KampradÃ¢â¬â¢s strategty that allows firms to market their productsRead MoreIKEA case analysis Essay991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages What was the source of IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s success in Sweden early on (50s and 60s)? In 1943, IKEA was founded by Ingvar Kamprad at his home town, selling mainly pencils, postcards and other merchandise. From late 40s to early 50s, manufacturing furniture was introduced as a complement to general merchandise. This enabled Kamprad to step in the furniture business and exploring situation and finding new opportunities. The business had gain massive success in the domestic market for the since opening and theRead MoreIkea Case Study1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesContributing to Ikeas Success Swedish company, Ikea, has experienced many triumphs throughout the business history. Founder Ingvar Kamprad created a successful business from a financial gift his father gave him. There are several factors that contribute to IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s success. These factors include their low cost price strategy, the design of their store, and the shopping experience for customers. IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s low cost low pricing structure. IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s low cost pricing strategy was a key to their rise to success. It startedRead MoreIke A Worlds Largest Furniture Retailer1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCase Summary IKEA is a multinational organization that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, appliances, and home accessories. Founded in Sweden during the early 1940s by Ingvar Kamprad under the Stitching INGKA Foundation, IKEA ranks #45 on Forbes 2015 list of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable brands and ranked 269th as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Best Employers. It pioneered the flat pack design furniture at reasonable prices and had fast become one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest furniture retailer. As of May 2015, ForbesRead MoreIke Ethics And Society1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages IKEA GB590: Ethics in Business and Society Unit 2 Assignment Nicola Jones Baker Prof: Jackie Deem January 16, 2016 Introduction In 1995 one of IKEA suppliers in India was named for using children for labor in a rug factory. This was alarming to the IKEA Corporation. This news could have been damaging to the entire company if the right preventive measures were not taken. IKEA had to decide on their viewpoint on child labor and then had to make sure that what they did
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3373 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Debt management together with macroeconomic policies are two key elements which could be used to determine a countries ability to sustain external debt. This paper seeks to highlight the aspects of external debt and how OECS countries could use debt management as a means to create a stable economic environment. Every country in the world engages in some form of external borrowing as they seek to increase consumption and productivity. Countries borrow for various reasons and also engage in different types of borrowing. With borrowing comes market risk which is arises as a result of foreign exchange risk and commodity price fluctuations. There is not instrument to measure such risk but hedging could be used as a means to control and reduce risk (Jayaraman Laub, 2009). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Debt Management Together And Macroeconomic Policies Finance Essay" essay for you Create order International, regional as well as domestic institutions are those who make funds available so that the government could sustain a large current account. Institutions such as the IMF and World Bank have sought to help countries manage debts with the use of structural adjustment policies which have been proven to be both detrimental and effective. The country analysis will show that over the years the external debt of various OECS countries had increase significantly because of natural disasters and poor implementation of debt management strategies (Rowden, 2001). This paper also seeds to provide recommendations that are very essential for effective debt management. Countries before implementing should assess their current position and decide which strategy works best in what situation. Introduction External debt servicing is a problem that has plagued OECS countries for the past few years. The factors that contribute to the inability to service external debt are numerous. In some instances problems arise as a result of a countrys inability to control and use borrowed funds efficiently. Problems may also arise due to the fact that the return on investments is insufficient to make debt repayments. The use of inadequate debt management policies has lead to growth of external debt which increases the countries possibility of default. However, some problems (such as the US financial crisis that affected nearly the entire world) are beyond the control of the borrowing countries (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2010). OECS countries in recent times have faced high unexpected growth in the repayment of external debt. The fluctuation in exchange rate, trade policies (such as tariffs), and terms of trade have lead to a trade imbalance which is where imports exceeds exports. The ability of the commercial institutions to finance government expenditures had reduced as a result of the current financial crisis. Therefore, in order to sustain the huge current account governments have to seek financing externally. Generally countries that experience problems with debt- servicing resort to debt rescheduling which results in a further increase of cost. Establishing credit worthiness in the international market is not as easy as tarnishing it. Therefore, countries need to manage external debt effectively with the use of practical macroeconomic policies (Loser, 2004). This paper seeks to highlight the main aspects of external debt and the ways in which OECS countries could engage in effective debt management practices. External Debt External debt otherwise known as foreign borrowing could be defined as debt owing to creditors outside the country which forms part of a countrys total debt. The debtors of the OCES range from corporations, governments and also private households while the creditors range from governments, commercial banks and international lending institutions, like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (Rowden, 2001). Foreign borrowing is important because provides a country with the ability to increase consumption and investments beyond the limits of its current domestic production. It also provides the ability to fund capital formation not only by collecting domestic savings but also by tapping into the surplus saving of other countries with low interest rates (Klein, 1997). Countries engage in foreign borrowing for reasons such as: import financing; economic problems; commodity price variations; increase production; and vulnerability. Countries such as Grenada which suffers from a significant trade deficit would normally seek to borrow from financial institutions to finance imports. Also, foreign debt could arise as a result of major economic shocks. For example, if the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) increases interest rates then automatically the interest rate on any external debt that any Eastern Caribbean country would increase. This would lead to reduce availability of money in circulation, hence giving rise to an increase in the value of local currencies. Exports would decrease because it is now more costly, forcing the country to borrow to cover its imports. In addition, in the event of a serious shock in commodity prices such as oil, a countrys economy could end up in a helpless position in which the country would have to borrow to import less costly good or use the option of subsidizing the cost of the now expensive goods. Countries also borrow to increase production to enhance economic growth. Once the debt is injected into the productive sectors, the debt could be easily repaid and as a result could lead to trade surplus. In addition, countries borrow in order to obtain security. Countries such as Syria and Israel are both indebted to the US and Russia respectively. Most of these countries debt goes into obtaining military supplies to protect their countries instead of to their productive sectors (Loser, 2004). OECS governments engage in various types of debts, all of which has to be paid either now or sometime in the future. They include: export credits (loan intended to finance purchase of goods and contractual services); international bank loans; issuing of bonds; foreign direct investments; grants (contributions made by generous private non-government organizations such as Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)); and equity investments (includes offering of stock outside youre a country) (Klein, 1997). In order to service long- term and short-term external debt governments of the OECS generally implement policies (such as increase taxes). A high tax rate reduces FDI who normally enjoy tax breaks from low tax countries. A reduction in FDI would reduce government revenue and spending because FDI contributes significantly to a government current account (Abel, Bernanke, Croushore, 2010). Locally businesses would now seek to save more and invest less while consumers who patronize theses business would consume less and also save more. A reduction in income means that governments, business and private individuals are not able to invest in the financial markets. This could also lead to reduce economic activity which would push governments to borrow more externally to stimulate economic growth (Abel, Bernanke, Croushore, 2010) . International Lenders OECS countries borrow externally from international institutions such as the IMF, the World Bank and other commercial banks round the world. Emphasis will be place on the IMF and the World Bank. These two institutions were created in order to help with capital and currency shortages. OECS countries turn to the IMF to obtain short term loans to finance difficulties with balance of payment while finances form the World Bank are used for development (infrastructural development such as building of water dams). To guarantee that debts are serviced, the IMF and the World Bank have implemented polices for structural adjustments that must be adhered to in order for member countries to obtain finances (Third World Traveller, n.d). Do the policies for structural adjustment of the IMF and the World Bank help the OECS in any way? The answer to this question is no. These policies have crippled the agricultural sector, cause environmental destruction and also increase poverty among the OECS countries. Jamaica is a typical example that could be used as references when the effects of the policies of the IMF and the World Bank are discussed. The detriments may not be visible to countries such as ST. Lucia and Grenada but it does exist and if the level of external debts keeps rising, then it will become visible enough to actually feel the effects (Rowden, 2001). The various policies implemented by the IMF and the effects on developing countries could be found in Appendix 1. Risk Foreign exchange, interest rate, commodity price and market price are all types of risks if attention is not paid to could cause a government to plunge more into debt. As the number of currencies used in international trade increases; sensitivity to cross-currency exchange risk also increases when servicing of debt in terms of dollars. For borrowing countries, exchange rate risk has become a major problem as currencies fluctuate against each other. An increase in exchange rate risk would mean that the debt amount would also increase (Moffett, Stonehill, Eiteman, Fundamentals fo Multinational Finance, 2009). The majority of floating interest rate debt especially from commercial banks has abruptly exposed countries to huge movements in money market rates and balance of payment (BOP) shocks, which contributes significantly to the debt management problems of a country. With the increase in reliance on commercial banks as a source of financing, the possibility exists that interest rates will increase (Moffett, Stonehill, Eiteman, Fundamentals of Multinational Finance, 2009). In recent times, volatility for developing countries that rely on exports of commodity as a main source for foreign exchange earnings has increased as the price of commodity increases. The volatility of commodity price has been a common cause of instability in developing countries. Market based price risk arises as a result of the fluctuation of exchange rates, interest rates and commodity price. Instruments used to manage market based risk causes the price risk to shift to the dealers and further consumers externally. There is no instrument used to control the volatility of interest rate, exchange rate and commodity price. However, hedging could be used against adverse fluctuations that are unanticipated (Moffett, Stonehill, Eiteman, Fundamentals of Multinational Finance, 2009). Debt management Before attempting to seek financial assistance the countries of the OECS need to seek answers to the following questions. How much to borrow? The amount of debt that a country accumulates is basic policy decision which is determined by the level of judgment and skills of the individuals making it. In order to determine the amount to borrow the OECS countries need to take the following two factors (which are determined by economic management) into consideration. First, the country needs to know the amount of capital that its economy could absorb. Secondly, in order to avoid problems with external payment, the amount of debts that can be serviced needs to be taken into account (Klein, 1997). Is borrowing in excess? Most of the OECS countries excessive borrowing is as a result of poor and inappropriate fiscal policies. The many tax breaks which are often given to foreign investors result in not only reduction in government revenue but also becoming a magnet for inappropriate Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Reduction in revenue, results in a weak tax base which generally causes inflation which together makes it harder to generate revenue and increase returns on FDIs. This is because of poor allocation of resources, the tendency to export reduces, and little factor utilization. Governments would now seek to borrow externally to invest in the public sectors such as tourism and agriculture (Klein, 1997). Inflation combined with inappropriate fiscal policies and trade policies that are highly protective could lead to the exchange rate being overvalued, which would increase the overall demand of borrowing externally (Klein, 1997). Debt Monitoring The OECS countries need to engage in better debt monitoring practices in other to have a better understanding of the amount of debt received and how it is disbursed. The following are useful ways of monitoring a countries debt. Firstly the general accounting principles of the World Bank needs to be applicable in all of the OECS countries especially when preparing loan report for finances borrowed from the World Bank. Secondly the debt accounts need to reflect the governments budgetary balance with external borrowing. Also the debt account should be reconciled with the interest payments shown in the current expenditure of the government. Thirdly, all debts paid throughout the state need to be managed by a special unit in the Ministry of Finance (Greenidge, Drakes, Craigwell, 2010). The disbursement of the finances must be kept up to date and prepared by each sector. Fourthly, all accounting records must be computerized and backed up on a daily basis. This would enable quick access to any record and in the case of emergency (hurricane) the data which has been backed up and safely stored could be retrieved. Fifthly, the central bank and the government has to have close collaboration in order to monitor debt payments and from time to time reconcile their individual accounts to detect and correct discrepancies. Although the treasury maintains the consolidate accounts (income and expenditure) of the country, its records must also be reconciled with the other sectors (Greenidge, Drakes, Craigwell, 2010). Debt Management Institutions The institution used to manage debt could be found within the administrative structure of a government. Statistical, control and external financing units are the three groups needed to manage debt. They work together to ensure that information gathered on the countrys total debt is timely and accurate to determine whether the country is capable of absorbing more external debt and identify the appropriate types of borrowing (Klein, 1997). Country Debt Analysis Grenadas external debt increased by approximately 67.3 percent from the year 2004 to 2009 although record from previous years revealed that the rate of growth slowed down. This was mainly as a result of government seeking alternative finance sources that was cheaper. After the passage of hurricane Ivan, external debt increased significantly compared to the years 2001-2003. In 2005 47.2 percent the public debt was restructured causing Grenada to save millions in interest payments. In 2006 90 percent of Grenada debt service to the Paris Club was rescheduled upon the Paris Club agreement. In April of 2006 Grenadas arrangement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Fund (PRGF) was approved by the IMF. Grenada got additional debt relief from the Paris Club in 2009 (Ministry of Finance, 2010). As a result of lending from the World bank and the IMF Grenadas external debt increased in 2009 by roughly 7.3 percent which was an increase of 1.2 percent from 2008 which was a result of the disbursement for finances from preceding loan. Grenadas external debt increased by approximately 4.4 percent reflecting the sum of EC$ 1.35 billion because of the public investment Programme (PSIP) (expansions of the public sector such as repair done to schools and infrastructural development for the preparation of Cricket World Cup in 2007). Interest payment made on external debt increased slightly from EC$ 21,830,823 in 2007 to EC$ 27,294,405 in 2009 and have already made payments of approximately EC$ 13,086,627 for the first quarter of this year. Total interest payments increase by 29.1 percent as the interest payments for the Paris Club rescheduling was outstanding (Ministry of Finance, 2010). St. Lucia The external non-guaranteed debt decrease by 14.3 percent and 62.9 percent respectively, at the close of 2009. As a result of keeping with the debt management strategies the foreign exchange risk faced by the central government external debt was minimal. A total of 76.2 percent of the central government external debt faced no foreign currency risk because more than half of the 76.2 percent were US dollars denominated while the remainder was in Easter Caribbean and Barbados dollars. However debt was contracted in Euros and British pound sterling in the amount of $50.1 million (Ministry of Finance, 2010). In addition to borrowing from regional development institutions St. Lucia also borrowed $28.9 million from the Exogenous Shock Facility of the IMF. The concessionary interest on multi-lateral loans increased by 14.2 percent, of which, 68.4 percent was accounted for by the central government external debt. 23.1 percent of the debt contracted by the central government external debt was funded by the World Bank and the IMF. External debt is expected to increase significantly as the government intends to seek funds to aid with the reconstruction of infrastructure which was damaged as a result of the passage of hurricane Tomas (Ministry of Finance, 2010). Conclusion The purpose of debt management policies is to resist macroeconomic and balance of payments instability, while attaining maximum benefits from external borrowing. In order to service debt on new borrowings countries must ensure that the level of productivity as well as export increases. Countries that are greatly indebted are prone to severe macroeconomic shocks which would lead to severe cuts in consumption and investments. Growth is the one of the most important factors that determines creditworthiness, but a country must take into consideration those investments that are either successfully or poorly done decides whether growth will take place. It is better to not borrow at all than to invest and borrow badly (Sachs, 2001) . The cost of external borrowing is not only as a result of interest rates, but with each loan, the borrower is hard-pressed closer to its ceiling point, which is actually an additional cost to real interest charges. They also need to take into consideration all the risk which could be managed through hedging (Sidaoui, 2000). Therefore those responsible for macroeconomic policies such as the Finance Ministry within a country should pay specific attention to the relationship involving foreign borrowing, investments and growth. They must ensure that the projection for assessment is practical as it relates to the effects of any investment on the public and private sector. Also, a countries ability to repay their debt must be assessed before making any further borrowings (Sidaoui, 2000). Recommendations Before any government engages in any form of external borrowing they must first take into consideration the following: ensure that they have a plan as to how the funds received will be repaid and the implications of acquiring such debt on the implementation of future fiscal and monetary policies. OECS countries should seek to implement macroeconomic policies that are practical which would help to control inappropriate and excessive borrowing. Also, the effects of external volatility would decrease whereas reserves would increase. Stringent measures should be taken to ensure that finances received from external sources be used efficiently and invested in areas that have the potential to grow and increase revenue and foreign currency which could be used to service external debt. The procedures for debt monitoring (for example preparation of account by each sector) and the follow up must be transparent. In order to avoid the implementation of tough adjustment policies, OCES countries need to secure some form of financing that they could depend on in the event of a short-term financial crisis. OECS members should strive to create an environment that is conducive in order to encourage more long term investments by developing their financial system. A developed financial system wou ld help markets in the area of risk management. OECS members need to avoid depending on short term external borrowing and seek to secure financing on a long term basis. Countries need to keep enough foreign reserves which could be used to provide insurance in the event of negative externalities. Foreign reserve portfolios should be managed effectively paying particular attention to the fluctuation of major currencies which normally contributes to foreign exchange risk. Countries should find alternatives to decrease the burden of expensive debt and implement strategies to reduce the need of wanting to borrow externally. Debt should be monitored regularly with the aid of suitable tools, such as debt sustainability analysis which would assist I reducing and maintaining the debt burden and keeping it at a sustainable level. Data relating to debt and is various disbursements has to be computerized so as to increase efficiency and timeliness of information. The governments should ensure that data relating to debt is transparent and meets the international standards. Members of the OECS have to provide support for each other in the event that any member has difficulty in raising capital on an international basis. Members should also work together with the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) to strengthen the bond market. The debt management systems within the OECS should be improved as fast as the economic environment evolves. The governments of the OECS could seek alternative sources of financing that does not require any repayment. For example, the investment and educational ties with China could be strengthened. Since we have strong ties with the US, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation could be used as an option to help fund the repairs and construction of schools. The governments could also seek the return of ex-patriots to invest and build in the OECS countries.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Beowulf, The Epic Hero An epic is a long poem, usually derived from ancient oral stories, describing the adventures and deeds of a legendary hero. Typically, most epics follow a pattern or hold certain characteristics. These characteristics are; a hero, a quest, valorous deeds, divine intervention, and great events. The hero is usually the protagonist that in which is sent on a quest. As the heroes proceed on their quest, they will exhibit valorous deeds or actions that show their character. Epics also intertwine great events to set the theme of the story. Some of these events develop from myths or cultural aspects. Lastly, the hero must undergo divine intervention, or the help from a person or supernatural force. One of the most well known Anglo-Saxon Epics is Beowulf. The story of Beowulf contains all of these characteristics, along with the values of the Anglo-Saxons. The values of the Anglo-Saxons can best be described as The Heroic Code. This Code of Honor was the ruleset every warrior was to follow. The warriors were to be brave, honorable, truthful, and loyal. Beowulf perfectly exhibits these values, making him a great example of an epic hero. The poem starts off with the introduction of Grendel, a beast originating from the cursed family of Cain and Abel. Because he is an abomination that has been exiled from man by God, Grendel lives in the darkness. He constantly hears the sounds of celebration coming from the mead hall full of warriors causing him to cringe.Show MoreRelatedThe Epic Of Beowulf As An Epic Hero1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaway following a journey, you have most likely read an epic. An epic by definition is Ã¢â¬Å"a long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nationÃ¢â¬ . Every epic has a main character that undergoes the same archetypal journey as all other heroes, an epic hero. There are specific qualities one must have to be consid ered an epic hero. Each epic hero possesses superhuman strength, displays a strong sense ofRead MoreThe Epic Of Beowulf As An Epic Hero711 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthan the writer. These Ã¢â¬Å"epic herosÃ¢â¬ are protagonists that fulfill their potential of greatness through using their bravery, strength and humility for good. The near ancient tale of Beowulf is a classic example of an epic story that contains an epic hero. In this tale Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, has been terrorized by a beast known as Grendel. This beast has been murdering the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s people and no one has come close to stopping this killer. A Geat warrior named Beowulf hears of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s predicamentRead MoreBeowulf : An Epic Hero930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The story of Beowulf shows its reader many characteristics of why this Anglo-Saxon poem is an epic. First of all, Beowulf is a warrior of epic renown by the time he formally introduces himself in the poem. Next, Beowulf is the warrior that many strive to be in life. In addition, Beowulf finds himself tackling many quests that involve dangerous beasts, or as he might call them, demons. The next quality shown by Beowulf is his bravery and honor. The reader is able to easily identify this characteristicRead MoreBeowulf, The Epic Hero1373 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages 2015 Beowulf, The Epic Hero In Anglo Saxon times, Beowulf is considered a well known epic hero. Ã¢â¬Å"Epic heroes are literary characters from ancient mythology and other stories, which were written down in the form of long, narrative epic poems. The hero is the main character, or protagonist of the poemÃ¢â¬ (Epic Hero: Definition, Characteristics Examples.). The epic hero usually battles for accomplishments to a set of tasks to complete important goals. Beowulf is described as an epic hero becauseRead MoreThe Epic Hero Of Beowulf866 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn epic hero is someone who is of great importance, they have supernatural abilities, have some form of connection with the Gods, and accomplish great deeds. In Beowulf, translated by Seamus Heaney, Beowulf is the epic hero in his tale and he is considered great by those who know of his life. There are two versions of his story which portrays him in a certain way. The video version does not do its best to portray him as an epic hero but instead show that he is a liar, a womanizer, and a coward. TheRead MoreBeowulf : An Epic Hero894 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The character of Beowulf demonstrates several characteristics that make a great epic hero. Throughout his lifetime he displayed several characteristics such as honor, bravery, physical superiority, leadership, and glory. These characteristics all formed how the Anglo-Saxons believed one should live their life. Along with the valorous deeds that Beowulf accomplished he is considered to be a prime example of an epic hero. Beowulf would have even been considered a model human to the Anglo-SaxonsRead MoreBeowulf : An Epic Hero978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Beowulf is a character that exudes the qualities of an epic hero. Throughout this epic, Beowulf is seen as a hero to many and a major threat to the evils he encounters. The values of the Anglo-Saxons, who would have read and admired this poem, included loyalty, bravery, and honor. BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s character exemplifies all of these qualities to the highest degree. The values and traditions of the original composers of this story cause BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s character to be the perfect example of an Anglo-SaxonRead MoreBeowulf: an Epic Hero983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGauvain British Literature Beowulf Essay 9/22/04 Beowulf: An Epic Hero According to Abrams, the heroic poem is a long verse narrative on a serious subject, told in an elevated style, and centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a nation, or the human race. Beowulf fits Abrams description of an epic, exhibiting all of the characteristics listed throughout the book, thus defining Beowulf as a hero and making the book an epic through its elevatedRead MoreBeowulf, the Epic Hero1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBeowulf, the Epic Hero There have been many grand stories about great warriors, and champions; those about epic heroes however, are the truly exceptional tales. One such tale, over a thousand years old, stands out from all the rest: Beowulf, the tale of a great warrior, on his quest to achieve eternal glory, defeating great opponents. Throughout the whole story, Beowulf demonstrates most Ã¢â¬âif not all- of the qualities that an archetypal hero possesses. He embodies the highest ideals of his cultureRead MoreBeowulf : The Epic Hero960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPotter, and Beowulf all have in common? They all demonstrate the qualities of epic heroes. Beowulf represents several characteristics of an epic hero and demonstrates the values of the Anglo-Saxons. He is the main character of his story, he has a main goal, he travels and fights with a group of people, and he accomplishes many valorous deeds; the values of the Anglo-Saxons are also shown through the actions of Beowulf, such as courage, loyalty, an d fame. For example, when Beowulf heard a cry
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theBusiness Communication for FibreOne Marketing. Answer: This is to notify you that currently I am working on a project related to the telecommunication company FibreOne to develop their new website. The FibreOne Marketing Director has recently communicated with me explaining that their internal team is behind the proposed schedule. They are currently facing a lot of issues regarding the structure and the design of their new website. The team members present in their internal team is unable to arrive at a common solution to the problems that they are facing. This is chiefly due to the fact that all the members in their internal team are rather new to the entire process, as they had decided to recruit new people for the respective project. This situation has put me into a dilemma as unless their internal team completes their part of the project I cannot start my work on the project, to proceed with my portion of the project I will be requiring the content provided by their internal team. I would like to take this opportunity to state my worries regarding the final deadline of the project, which was decided in our last project meeting, and the deadline is 10th April 2018. I will try my best to deliver the part I am supposed to complete within the stipulated deadline but still if the FibreOne team further delays in completing their own part it will become difficult for me complete my own work. I will be obliged if you would kindly look into the matter.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Plus By: Ed SheeranÃ¢â¬ My first impression of this album was kinda bad. I did not get the entire album. It was hard to relate to when I thought it through. I was not a big fan about the album, until a couple years that had passed. I was finally able to relate to it, somehow it expressed my emotions every single second of the day. My family was having problems coming from all directions. It seemed to talk to me. It became an album that I constantly listen to every day. The songs that stood out to me the most were Ã¢â¬Å"Lego HouseÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Small BumpÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"A TeamÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Kiss MeÃ¢â¬ . These songs were my favorite, the way it just moved my emotions around and made me feel as if I was finally finishing my depression stages. Ed Sheeran is a 26 year old, male. This album is called Ã¢â¬Å"PlusÃ¢â¬ . His music is Acoustic, pop, and contemporary folk music. We will write a custom essay sample on Plus by Ed Sheeran or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This album was about his experiences and what he witnessed that inspired him to devote them to those people. This album is very heart touching and it is so perfect! There is not 1 song that I do not like. Honestly, I could listen to this album forever. There are so many people rather listen to rap music when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re going through problems when this album should be mostly listened to because it helps you cope with anything on your mind. This is a Ã¢â¬Å"MustÃ¢â¬ listen to album. He dedicated Ã¢â¬Å"A TeamÃ¢â¬ to a young girl named Angel that he met in shelter that was soon going to be closing down and people like angel would have trouble finding another place to go. I do not like the album Ã¢â¬Å"X by: Ed SheeranÃ¢â¬ , that album just does not fit in with my life. The lyrics in Thinking Out Loud, Ã¢â¬Å"When your legs donÃ¢â¬â¢t work like they used to before.Ã¢â¬ make no sense to me and it just does not mix in with my Ã¢â¬Å"vibesÃ¢â¬ . The album genre seems as it changed and it just does not really make me want to listen. Some of the songs on his album are over played but on the Ã¢â¬Å"PlusÃ¢â¬ album I could listen to it none stop and not be bothered by it at all. The album is amazing, catchy, and relatable in many reasons and ways. Go home and listen to the album because no matter what you might think about before you listen to it it is one of a kind and you will not regret playing this song. Teenagers would really love this because this is the hardest age for them and it just feels rights when you listen to it even if you are in a good or bad, you will fall in love with it. The way it makes you feel like one of a kind feeling that you will not get from any other album or song ever.