Sunday, March 31, 2019

Discuss The Contention That Conflict And Dispute Are Inevitable

Discuss The Contention That bout And Dispute be InevitableINTRODUCTION departures as hygienic as Dispute atomic number 18 for sure inevitable in most of the technicalised message lying-ins whether big or sm wholly in all. To be precise, meshing and Dispute is always thither, non only in commercial determines entirely ar a part of our daily life. in that location is always a negate going on on as big as on an international level like on-going gainsay betwixt Israel and Palestine to small issues like a economize and wife having a confrontation as where to go out for dinner.Conflict in simple words merchant ship be defined as a discord over a situation between devil or more parties/individuals where they have there own vested interests. Conflict is sententious termed and is easy to dispel, while on the former(a) hand, dispute is when it becomes deep-rooted and no(prenominal) of the parties seems to be able to r distri howeverively an reason. Conflict contri merelye be solved easily while on the other hand there is a have for a third gear party intervention to resolve a dispute, which itself is date-consuming, expensive and unpleasant. In other words, we post say that meshing erect be managed, just now to an extent of preventing it. If not, it leads to dispute.CLASSIFICATION OF CONFLICTConflict discount further be classified as Functional and Dysfunctional, depending on the outcome. Earlier, scholars believed that contravene is a bad thing and should be avoided at all costs, but this was contradicted by Mary Parker Follett (1925), who coined the idea that effective conflict management ought not to conceive conflict as a wasteful outbreak of incompatibilities, but a normal process whereby socially valuable differences register themselves for the enrichment for all concerned.Functional Conflict It works towards the goal of a project. Mary Parker Follett (1925) called it plastic Conflict, which increases the information and ideas , encourage innovative thinking, unshackles different point of views and reduces stagnation at any stage of the project.Dysfunctional Conflict It is destructive in disposition and blocks the project from get ating the goal. It brings tension, anxiety and stress for e actuallyone tough. It drives out low conflict tolerant commonwealth form the project and reduces the trust for everyone involved, resulting in scurvy decision making arising referable to withheld or distorted information and refreshment of resources on the conflict rather than the project.Conflict, in general, locoweed be wisht with by following three methodsLose-Lose method In this, each positioning gives up several(prenominal) of its interests. This is done by Avoidance by staying away from the difficulty or withdrawing but it is not a permanent solution. The other woof is Compromise which is done by bargaining and negotiating, in which each side looses something. encourage-Lose method Also known as dom ination, in which there is a victory of one side over other and is done by Dominance where one party overwhelms the other party. Authoritative Command is another(prenominal)(prenominal) aspect where the psyche with authority rules in favor of one party.Win Win Method Also known as Integration where each side refocuses there efforts so that neither side loses anything and in point gains. This is done by finding the root causes of the problem, repayable to which conflict has arisen and accordingly try to meet the interests of all the parties which in the end leaves everyone happy.TYPES AND LEVELS OF CONFLICTIntra-organization Conflict As the name suggests, conflicts that occur within an organization, at the interfaces of organizational functions. It can occur along the vertical and horizontal hierarchy of the organizations i.e. between the managers and paladinordinates or between different departments and workgroups.Intra-group Conflict It is between the members of a group, and i s usually due to ways of doing the tasks or achieving goals.Inter-personal Conflict It is between devil or more population due to differences in opinions and views. This may also be due to differences in orientation to work and time in different part of an organization.Intra-personal Conflict It is more of a psychological issue. It occurs within an individual, when a person feels threatened to ones values, has a feeling of unfair treatment.Inter-organizational Conflict It is between both or more organizations, when they are working together, especially on a project. It is not related to competition. Typical example can be that of a conflict between a supplier and distributor.CONFLICT AND DISPUTES ARE needfulConflict and Disputes as mentioned are an unavoidable part of any commercial project by the virtue of the nature of the project. Any commercial project involves a variety of transactions as well as relationships on a local, national as well as international level. delinqu ent to the complexity of a commercial project involving guest, consultant, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers it becomes inevitable. There can be a number of issues for ambiguity between different parties like project clutchs, alter in scope of work, payment issues, design issues, castrate in specifications, administrative problems, personal damages, inflation etc to name a few. Managers have to shit up, nurture and maintain a network of relationships to make there projects a success. watch Delays Time management is very crucial for any commercial project. All the activities in a project are lined up one after another and are interlinked. Any kind of frustrate in this causes the whole project to be agreeed, affecting the cash-flow as well as ruining the relationship of all the involved. In many contingencys pecuniary losses are also incurred by those involved due to gibe caused by one of the involved. For example, project handing over got delayed due to delay caused b y one sub contractor, and for which the main contractor gets penalized. This penalty he will try to distribute evenly between all his sub contractors, which in turn will not be accepted by those who have finished there scope of work on time, accordingly leading to conflict.Change in Scope/Specifications Once everything had been finalized, any change in the scope of work or change in specifications can have a direct impact on the financial as well as the lead time of the project, which can result in the conflict between the parties involved. For example for a project, contractor has already procured some material, or has outsourced a particular job, but when asked to incorporate those changes by the client/consultant, he suffers a financial loss or he has to change the supplier with whom he has placed the order to meet the required specifications.Payments Conflict can arise due to delay in payments either by one of the parties involved in the project, due to financial crunch or beca use there has been some delay or there is some risky performance in terms of quality by the other. Whatever the fictional character maybe, it disrupts the cash-flow whole project, affecting parties involved e.g. If a contractor doesnt pays to a sub-contractor, he in turn cannot make the payments to his suppliers as well as employees and defaults, which directly affects the progress of the project leading to conflict between the sub-contractor and the contractor.Administrative Problems It is another issue for conflict arising due to mismanagement or lack of coordination between different agencies involved, which lead to project delays, cost over-run which in turn results in loss for the project. For example, in a project, scope of work of two sub-contractors is interdependent. If there is no coordination between them, it will result in unnecessary delay for the project.ConclusionThe above mentioned are a few aspects of conflict which are common in any commercial project, whether it s a construction, development or an IT project. From here we can infer that conflict is a set of inter-related elements that is to say parties, issues, dynamics and context. Since it is very difficult in any commercial project, involving tumescent number of players, to maintain a balance between all these elements, conflict becomes inevitable. Conflict if interpreted in a positive note, and if resolved appropriately, can leads towards betterment and successful delivery of a project. If not they lead towards dispute which itself is unpleasant, diverts valuable resources from the overall aim, is time consuming, costly and destroys the relationship between those involved which may have taken years to develop. Dispute at all cost should be avoided and should be resolved still when its at a level of conflict.DISPUTE RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN A COMMERCIAL sign onIn any commercial project, there is always discrepancy/disagreement regarding the scope of work, deadlines, etc which leads t o conflicts and when they get out of hand, leads to Dispute. Disputes in general, in a commercial contract are addressed to by the following three methodsnegotiationMediation arbitrationnegotiation is a tool by which we deal with our differences. These differences may be over the price of everyday grocery, or an machine or a labor contract or maybe an coalescency between the two companies. In general as per the academicians and theorists, there are two types of negotiation theories namely Positional Negotiation and Principled Negotiation. tour in positional negotiation, negotiation is done in such a way that the other party looses its faith in its own gaffe and submits to the first demands of the first party, in Principled negotiation, a softer approach is taken to reach a solution. It is based on the following principles Separate people from Problem, Focus on interests, not positions and Invent options for Mutual Gains.Mediation on the other hand gets the involvement of a third party (neutral) to resolve the outstanding issues and helps them to reach an agreement. Unlike negotiation, it is somewhat semi-formal, with the outcome may or may not be cover to the parties, as per the agreement.In case of Arbitration, it is a formal, private form of an Alternate Dispute Resolution. Here the contend parties refer to one or more persons (arbitrator or an arbitrator tribunal), who in turn reviews the facts and gives the decision which is legally stick on both the parties. The study difference between Mediation and Arbitration is that mediator always tries to reach a compromise while an arbitrator gives decision which is lawfully binding to both the parties.While Negotiation is very common and is used oftentimes as compared to Mediation and Arbitration, Mediation is the fastest means to as compared to the other two options. The cost incurred is solving the dispute is highest in Arbitration but depends on number of factors, but still, as compared to Mediation and Negotiation. While Arbitration is recognized by common law and the decision made by an arbitrator will uphold in tourist court of law, this is not true up in case of Mediation and Negotiation, but depends on the mutual agreement of the disputing parties. However, if agreed beforehand, the agreement reached via Mediation can also be binding for all the parties involved.Apart from these, Litigation is another dispute resolving technique, to which the disputing parties can resort to. This is a formal process in which the case of the disputing parties is taken to the court and the proceedings are held in public. Compared to Negotiation, Mediation and Arbitration, Litigation is a Slow, time consuming and a very expensive process, where the trials are held in public and there is no scope for confidentiality.THE POTENTIAL USE OF high-principled NEGOTIATION IN THE INDIAN reflection INDUSTRYNegotiation is a tool used by means of a dialogue between the two or more parties to resolve issu es, bargain or to carry out ones vested interests which can be broadly classified into needs, aspirations, fears and desires. Negotiation is classified into two typesPositional NegotiationPrincipled NegotiationPrincipled Negotiation is a relatively new phenomenon, which was coined in late 70s by Fisher and Ury. They gave quartet basic principles for the Principled Negotiation which are as under-.Separate people from the ProblemFocus in interests and not problemsInvent options for mutual gains get hold of among options by using objective criteriaCharles G. Fields has described Principled Negotiation as a 7 elements cloth namely Interests, Options, Legitimacy, Communications, Relationships, Commitments and Alternatives.INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AND PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATIONAfter agriculture, construction welkin is the largest assiduity in India. India being a developing country and estimated to become the third largest economy by 2025, and with an economic growth rate of almost 7 %, there is a huge demand for the infrastructure and construction projects. each year, Billions of US$ are spent, both by public and private sector on construction and infrastructure protects. As the construction market is exploitation by leaps and bounds, so as the conflict and dispute, which then go to the court of law (litigation) to be resolved. The judicial framework of India moves at a very slow pace and is very expensive, and hence there is a need for an alternative.Principled Negotiation, on the other hand is much less time consuming and expensive as compared to litigation and also the relationships between the parties are also not destroyed and consequently the disputing parties reach to a fair to middling agreement. Due to this, not only Principle Negotiation technique but Alternate Dispute Resolution Techniques have a good potential in India.REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHYConflict online, available http//webhome.idirect.com/kehamilt/ipsyconf.html accessed 10 kinsfolk 200 9Gray, C. and Larson, E (2008) Project worry The Managerial Process, 4th ed., Boston McGraw-Hill.Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991) Getting to Yes Negotiating an Agreement without large in, Second Edition, Century Business, London.Fenn, P and Gameson, R (Eds) (1992), Construction Conflict Management and Resolutions, Chapman Hall, LondonTrust and conflict within virtual inter-organizational alliances a framework for facilitating knowledge sharing online, available http//www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL_udi=B6V8S-4CDJKMV-2_user=121749_rdoc=1_fmt=_orig=search_sort=d_docanchor=view=c_searchStrId=1111593104_rerunOrigin=google_acct=C000024058_version=1_urlVersion=0_userid=121749md5=5bf1d2dde69eccc5b0f0becb1595c3f9 accessed 12 September 2009Rahim, M. Afzalur , Toward a Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 13, nary(prenominal) 3, 2002. online Available http//ssrn.com/abstract=437684 accessed 12 November 2009Fern andez Jimenez de Cisneros, Inmaculada, Dorado, Miguel ., Martinez, Ines, Medina, Francisco J. and Munduate Jaca, Lourdes, Types of Conflict and Personal and Organizational Consequences. IACM fifteenth Annual Conference. online Availablehttp//ssrn.com/abstract=305068 or doi10.2139/ssrn.305068 accessed 12 November 2009

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The History And Background Of Rickets Health Essay

The History And spetroleum Of rachitis Health EssayRickets is a disease that is miss of vitamin D. It is by and large happening in winter and spring, and children ar easy to suck the disease when they from 2 to 6 age group. If the children lack of vitamin D, their de fig ups allow become soft. (1. Unknown, 2003)CUsersDELLAppDataRoamingTencentUsers752503580QQWinTempRichOleBFU4MUDQH268WAGFZ_)M.jpg Keywords bones, children, cod liver oil, disabled children, diseases, girls, Glasgow Corporation, infants, medicine, orangish juice, mankind health, rachitis, sunlight, Vitamin D deficiencyHistory1st and 2nd century ADSoranus, a Roman physician, is the person who first described bony deformities in the 1st and 2nd century AD. He pointed out that bony deformities much appeared in the teen children because Roman mothers a great dealtimes lack of nurture and hygiene.1645Daniel Whistler, an side of meat physician, is credited with the earliest person who described rickets. In 1645, he publish a monograph titled Inaugural aesculapian that provided a description of the signs and symptoms of rickets. An put together term called Paedosteocaces was used to describe the clinical symptoms of rickets. The signs and symptoms of rickets included bone pain or tenderness, dental deformities slow down formation of teeth, short stature, damage growth, decreased muscle strength, and a telephone number of skeletal deformities, including abnormally shape skull (craniotabes), rib-cage abnormalities (rachitic rosary), bowlegs, and breastbone, pelvic, and spinal deformities. (2. William C. Shiel Jr., 2012)1650Francis Glisson, a Cambridge physician published in Latin a treatise on rickets titled De Rachitide. in 1650. Glissons work remains a classic among medical texts. Unlike Whistler, Glissons sound and elegant observation of rickets is based on clinical and postmortem experience.1909N archeozoic 2 centuries afterwards the Glissonian era, there were no new developments in the study of rickets. At the persuade of the 20th century, rickets was heavy among the underprivileged infants living in industrialised cities of North in the United States and several polluted cities in Europe. In 1909, among infants 18 months or less who had died, Schmorl found histopathological evidence of rickets in 96% (214 of 221) at autopsy, highlighting the pervasive nature of rickets during that era. Although it often happened, the exact cause of rickets still unclear. Deficient forage, faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine), and lack of exercise were all interested in its etiology. (3. Kumaravel Rajakumar, 2003)GeographyRickets mainly happen in anywhere. It is simple cause of lack of vitamin D. the rickets mostly happen in the young children.Firstly, the sunlight is an important factor of cure rickets because sunlight tail end facilitate the synthesis of vitamin D when human soundbox exposure to sunlight. Sniadecki, a physicians obser ved that children living in Warsaw had a high incidence of rickets, whereas children living in rural areas outside Warsaw did not base on this observation, he advocated exposure to sunlight as a federal agency of curing this disease. (4. Unknown, 2012)Secondly, according to Sniadeckis collections of opinions that indicated the appearance of rickets does not associated with the economy and the locations of the mass. The opinions were from whatsoever physicians in the British Empire and the Orient showed that rickets was obsolete in children living in poor cities in China, Japan, and India where people receive poor nutrition and lived in squalor, whereas the children of middle class and poor who lived in industrialized cities in the British Isles had a high incidence of rickets. (5. Jan 25, 2011) subtletyGroupMostly young children are easy to get rickets, curiously dark skin people. Young children need to eat food that includes vitamin D and they need to under the sunlight mor e than 15 minute all day.SymptomsThe signs and symptoms of rickets included bone pain or tenderness, dental deformities delayed formation of teeth, short stature, impaired growth, decreased muscle strength, and a number of skeletal deformities, including abnormally shaped skull (craniotabes), rib-cage abnormalities (rachitic rosary), bowlegs, and breastbone, pelvic, and spinal deformities. (6. William C. Shiel Jr., 890d2012)DiagnosedIf we found children have intermittent tetanus or seizures, X-rays of long bones (radius, ulna, and femur) and ribs, they will get the rickets. (7. William C. Shiel Jr., 2012)Environmental bewitchPollution from factories stool affect the rickets, because the environmental pollution will square block the suns ultraviolet ray. The suns ultraviolet ray is good for our body. It piece of tail make our body production of vitamin D to reduce the rickets. (8. Steven M Schwarz, 2011)Ethical issuesNowadays people who with darkly pigmented skin or live in in dustrialized Yankee cities and the children in certain Arab countries who often cover clothing and stay within still at risk of rickets. Besides, in tropical with sunny climates, rickets still a problem in the cities like Calcutta, Johannesburg, and in mostly Afri chiffonier-Ameri basin children in the United States, because children usually consume vegetarian or vegan fasts and infants often have low levels of vitamin D as a result of the sloshed mothers have low levels of vitamin D. Although rare, diets directly deficient in calcium and daystar whitethorn too lead to rickets. (9. Unknown, 2012)Social influenceRickets dirty dog be found much more easily in the underdeveloped countries or regions which without clean food and water. Rickets is a kind of bone structure softening disease, and it can finally lead to breakage, fractures and deformity of the limbs and spine. Rickets usually is due to malnutrition, especially when vitamin D and calcium cannot be got exuberant from the diet. If infants cannot get enough nutrients, they maybe get rickets much easier. Starvation, little food intake or a poor diet also lead to rickets. In adults, an extreme deficiency in vitamin D can cause osteomalacia too.If malnutrition is the main cause, protruding bones and muscles may be visible. And if caught early on, rickets can be treated. The treatment for rickets caused by malnutrition should get moving by treating the malnutrition or malabsorption of foods. This means following a healthy diet that includes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, protein and dairy. Another recommendation is a high-calorie nutritional subjoining to upgrade and encourage weight gain. Sometimes doctor may also recommend vitamin D and calcium supplements with the precise dosage, and along with frequent monitoring of calcium and vitamin D levels in the blood. (10. Julie Boehlke, 2011)Change agentsDaniel WhistlerDaniel Whistler is an English physician. He is credited with the earliest person who described rickets. In 1645, he published a monograph titled Inaugural medical that provided a description of the signs and symptoms of rickets. An put together term called Paedosteocaces was used to describe the clinical symptoms of rickets. (11. Kumaravel Rajakumar, 2003) beset SteenbockIn 1924, University of Wisconsin-Madison biochemist Harry Steenbock discovered a method that exposure to ultraviolet irradiation can increase the vitamin D content of certain foods, virtually eliminating the debilitating characterize of rickets. (12. The Guardian, 2010)K. HuldschinskyIn 1919, the German queryer K. Huldschinsky carried out a remarkably advanced(a) experiment and cured children of rickets using artificially-produced ultraviolet light. (13. Unknown, 2009)Alfred F. Hess and L. F. UngerIn 1921, researchers Alfred F. Hess and L. F. Unger of capital of South Carolina University first showed that by only if exposing rachitic children to sunlight, they were able to cure them of th e disease. (14. Unknown, 2009)SteenbockRecognizing that simply irradiating certain foods that were parking area in most peoples diets could spare large rime of children from the bone disease, Steenbock patented the food irradiation process using ultraviolet light in 1924, donating all future proceeds to support research at the University of Wisconsin. (15. Unknown, 2009)InnovationThe description of conditions with bony deformities in ancient medical writings dates back to the 1st and 2nd centuries. Despite rickets common occurrence, the exact etiology of rickets remained elusive. An English physician, Edward Mellanby made a serial of experimental study and postulated, It therefore seems probable that the cause of rickets is a diminished intake of an antirachitic factor which is either fat-soluble A, or has a sanely similar distribution to fat-soluble A. Even though his conclusion has soon been turn up incorrect, His work still clearly established the role of diet in the cause o f rickets.In 1861, Professor Armand Trousseau, a French internist state that rickets was caused by lack of sun exposure and a faulty diet, and cod-liver oil could effectively cure it. After many year further research and clinical trials, by the 1930s, the use of cod-liver oil in the treatment and ginmill of rickets became common place. The eventual public health prevention first of fortification of milk with vitamin D led to eradication of rickets in the United States. (16. Kumaravel Rajakumar, 2003)When people get more information about rickets, they can think about how to prevent rickets.Contemporary uses and resourcesRickets can be prevented by consumed balanced and nutrition diets. In order to prevent the rickets, foods that are high in calcium (such as milk, cheese, and salad greens) and vitamin-D (such as breakfast cereals and orange juice) should be provided (17). Evidence has showed that supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D to each one day can be effective in preventing the diseases (18)Vitamin D deficiency has become a serious problem throughout the world. In New Zealand, around 31% of children aged in 5-14 years suffer vitamin D deficiency (19).Foods oily fish, liver, eggs, meat, oatmeal.BreakfastLunchDinnerVitamin D in pregnancy dietThe National Academy of Sciences recommended that pregnant women get 200 IUs (5 micrograms) of vitamin D each day if theyre not exposed to adequate sunlight (your body makes vitamin D when exposed to the sun). Many experts believe this amount isnt nearly enough. For example, Bruce Hollis, professor of pediatric medicine at the health check University of South Carolina, who has researched vitamin D needs, recommended that pregnant women take a supplement of 4,000 IU of vitamin D a day. And lactating women take a supplement of 6,000 IU daily. And the National Academy of Sciences is reviewing its guidelines on vitamin D currently, so the data may change.Egg, modify milk, fish liver oil, and fatty fish, and cereal produc ts all channel vitamin D. Be sure to check food labels Some cheeses, yogurts, eggs, and cereals are fortified while others arent. All milk is vitamin D fortified.Here are some of the best food sources of vitamin D3 ounces catfish, cooked 570 IU3.5 ounces salmon, cooked 360 IU3.5 ounces mackerel, cooked 345 IU3 ounces tuna fish, keep in oil 200 IU1.75 ounces sardines, canned in oil, drained 250 IU1 cup milk, fortified with 25% of daily value (DV) of vitamin D degree Celsius IU1 cup orange juice, fortified with 25% of DV of vitamin D snow IU1 cup fortified skim milk 98 IU1 tablespoon margarine, fortified 60 IU1 cup ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with 10% of DV of vitamin D 40 IU1 egg yolk 20 IUthe BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board, 1997. Vitamin D in your pregnancy diet Retrieved on tenth November 2012 fromhttp//www.babycenter.com/0_vitamin-d-in-your-pregnancy-diet_661.bc?page=2Future trendsApplication to an establishment

Sickle Cell Anemia: Treatment and Effects

Sickle carrel Anemia Treatment and effectuateSickle carrell anemia is an inherited agenttic wrinkle illness characterized by bouts of intense pain, organ damage, infection, depleted atomic number 8 levels and at measure premature death. Although it has come to be known as a infirmity that affects mainly people of Afri outhouse decent affliction with reap hook prison prison cubicle anemia has also been observed in those individuals with ancestry stemming from parts of the center(a) East, India, Latin America, the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. The factortic aspect of the affection is as such(prenominal) unrivaled constituent for the illness must be inherited from some(prenominal)(prenominal) p arnts for that mortal to be de stipulationined to suffer reap hook carrel disease. Therefore, a person with reaping hook cell disease has inherited ace mutated imitation for the trait from two of its fartherms. The mutated trait that leads to sickle cell disease impacts the invention of haemo haematohiston by the corpse. In a normal individual without the sickle cell trait or disease, they create haemoglobin A (HbA).However, in persons with sickle cell disease, their bone marrow creates a run of haemoglobin c all(prenominal)ed haemoglobin S (HbS). It is the creation of Hb(S) that causes the breedation of abnormal red short letter cells. In a healthy individual, the red blood cells argon normally disc-shaped kick upstairs with Hb(S), the red blood cells pack a stretched out sickle shaped appearance ( prognosticate 1). Although it has been around for hundreds of years, sickle cell anemia was further scientifically observed in the early 1900s when in 1910 Dr. jam B. Herrick remark the presence of sickle cells in the blood of Walter C. Noel. Further scientific national showed that the sickling of the red blood cells was related to to low blood oxygen.Major advancements into the find out of sickle cell anemia were beginning( a) achieved in 1949 by Dr. Linus Pauling who postulated that the hemoglobin produced by those with sickle cell disease was abnormal and secondly by Vernon Ingram who in 1959 disc everyplaceed that the difference between Hb(S) and Hb(A) was a single amino-acid interchange in the -polypeptide chain (6Glu Val)(Wikipedia). Other scientists followed this line of hypothecateing ( attribute 2) and found that this shift in the -polypeptide chain was due to a substitution of thymine for ampere in the DNA codon for Glu (GAG GTG). This was the first example in any species of the effectuate of a mutation on a protein (ibid).Genetics of Sickle mobile phoneSickle cell anemia, like new(prenominal)wise traits such as height, hairsbreadth and eye color is an inherited attribute. Both p arnts must be attack aircraft carriers of these contingent traits in order to pass on copies of these cistrons to their offspring. In the case of sickle cell which is an inherited autosomal recessive p oint mutation (see numeral 3), the hemoglobin of import agent (HBB) that is located on chromosome 11p.15.5 is affected. The mutation that affects this gene is the direct result of a glutamate universe substituted for a valine. This exchange of the -globin gene occurs in the sixth codon of the HBB gene and signifies that the disorder is caused by a single mutation in the nucleotide, an A to T changeover resulting in a GAG to a GTG sequence (see skeleton 4). The substitution of the glutamate for valine causes aFigure 4change to the structure and the function of the HBB gene and causes it to produce structurally abnormal hemoglobin (Hb), called hemoglobin S HbS (National Center for Biotechnology).The importance of Hb is that it serves as an oxygen carrying protein that gives red blood cells their characteristic color (ibid). As previously stated, the allelomorph responsible for causing sickle cell anemia is autosomal recessive and can be found on the short arm of chromosome 11 (W ikipedia). This means that an individual that has been diagnosed with sickle cell disease has received both copies of the mutated gene from their parents who individually carry one copy of the mutated gene.Sickle Cell Anemia and the Malaria InfluenceIn understanding the communicables of sickle cell anemia, it is important to recognize the role in which the mosquito born disease malaria compete in the high incidences of sickle cell trait. With the introduction of malaria into areas of sub-Saharan Africa over 4000 years ago, naturally occurring genetic defense mechanisms give birth evolved for resisting infection by malaria (Tishkoff, 2001). One such defense has been the sickle cell trait.How is this possible? The sign answer comes from the relationship between the two. As illustrated in figure 5, areas transfer hardest by malaria, where the disease is endemic, also show a high frequence of individuals that carry the Hb(S) gene. The data also indicates that in areas where malar ia occurs at a frequently lower rate, such as in cooler drier climates, the gene expression of the sickle hemoglobin is greatly reduced or nonexistant.In West Africa, where malaria is so common that nearly children are infected with the disease, the incidences of sickle cell trait are as high as 40%. Though many suffer symptoms that are severe enough to phiz trips to the hospital, for most, the disease is non fatal. The key to their resistance is in their genes. Genes are all paired with all(prenominal) parent supplying one half of each pair. If either hemoglobin gene undergoes a mutation, the hemoglobin it makes will be changed. This particular mutation called the sickle cell gene is tiny but it is enough to change the shape of the hemoglobin molecules it makes.In areas where malaria is endemic, carriers of the Hb (S) gene have gained some resistance to malaria. This resistance results from the red blood cells that the Hb (S) carriers have. When the malaria parasite attempts t o infect the red blood cells of an Hb (S) carrier, the abnormal hemoglobin present tends to sickle and this causes it to rupture. The rupturing prohibits the malaria parasite from reproducing. Due to their sickle shape, the infected cells die, are processed in the spleen and are then eliminated out of the dead body. The frequency of sickle-cell genes is around 10%. The existence of four haplotypes of sickle-type hemoglobin suggests that this mutation has emerged singly at least four times in malaria-endemic areas, further demonstrating its evolutionary advantage in such affected regions(The Medical News).Thus, people that had one copy of the gene were able to survive the malaria infection. They were able to grow up, engender married and have children and pass the genes on to the next generation. This is selective pressing that gene had an advantage in that particular environment for those carriers. We all have lots of small gene mutations they mostly go unnoticed but if the envir onment changes, one may suddenly show unforeseen set up both good and bad. In this case, one copy of the gene is estimable but two can be disastrous. In the USA, where thither is no endemic malaria, the prevalence of sickle-cell anemia among blacks is lower (about 0.25%) than in West Africa (about 4.0%) and is move (National Center for Biotechnology). As such, the sickle cell trait is gradually being selected out of that population.Inheritance of Sickle Cell Trait/DiseaseFigure 6In order to inherit the sickle cell trait one parent must be a carrier of the HBB, -globin S mutation and the other a carrier of an HBB mutation such as -thalassemia (M.A. Bender). A person develops the disease when they receive a copy of the defective gene from both parents. An individual that is heterozygous for the trait in which they have one mutated and one healthy allele will remain healthy, but will be able to pass on the disease to their offspring. As such, this person is referred to as a carrier . Take for example two parents who are carriers (Rr) for sickle cell trait. Were they to have a child, there is a 25 part dislodge that their child will develop the disease and a 50 percent chance of that child being a carrier. These examples as well as the other statistical possibilities are depicted in Figure 6. Individuals that are heterozygous for the sickle cell trait have a high fitness than either of the homozygotes. This is known as heterozygote advantage (Brigham and Womens Hospital). As this has remained a favorable adaptive advantage, the high prevalence of carriers in areas where malaria is still far-flung brings to the forefront the reality that sickle cell disease is still permeating in those regions.Hemoglobin the story of Sickle CellI had the view in 1945 that sickle cell anemia might be a disease of the hemoglobin molecule. No one had ever suggested the idea of a molecular disease before. As soon I had this idea, I image it must be right. From what I know of th e properties of these patients I believed that this is a disease of the molecule that if we looked at the blood of these patients we shall find that the hemoglobin molecules are distinguishable from other people. Linus PaulingFigure 7. Linus Pauling. BioRichUSALinus Pauling began his research into sickle cell disease by paying particularly close attention to the role that hemoglobin vie in its manifestation. Hemoglobin is an oxygen carrying protein found inside red blood cells. Pauling theorized that the hemoglobin that characterizes sickle cell disease is abnormal. His studies showed that sickle cell Hb (S) does differ from Hb (A) in that it has a lower negative commit and pH. In sickle cell anemia, which is a common form of sickle cell disease, hemoglobin S replaces both important-globin subunits in hemoglobin (Genetics photographic plate Reference).Further inspection into the nature of hemoglobin shows that the hemoglobin protein produced in adults is split into four sub-un its that are joined together. These grouped sub-units are known as protein chains. Two types of these protein chains exist 1) the alpha () globin chain and 2) the beta () globin chain. Hemoglobin protein is made up of two alpha globin chains and two beta globin chains. It is important to note that the genetic claimation used by the body to make the two hemoglobin chains can be found in two various hemoglobin genes located on two different chromosomes (Barlow-Stewart, 2001). The two kindred -globin genes that code for globin chains is located on chromosome 16.Figure 8The -globin gene codes for the beta () globin chain is located onchromosome 11 (see Figure 8). Two copies of each of these chromosomes can be found in body cells. Everyone therefore has four copies of the alpha globin gene and two copies of the beta globin gene in their body cells (ibid). According to statics posted by the World Health Organization, it is estimated that five percent of adults are carriers for a hemog lobin condition with approximately 2.3% of that number accounting for those adults diagnosed with sickle cell disease. interestingly enough, there is a correlation between a persons ancestry and the solve it has on the likelihood of that person being a genetic carrier for a hemoglobin condition such as sickle cell anemia.Detection and TreatmentDetection of sickle cell disease can take place in one of two right smarts amniocentesis and blood testing. Blood testing on newborns is now conducted in more than 40 states. The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is also being use to help those parents that are undergoing in vitro fertilization and are also carriers of the sickle cell trait identify those embryos that have the defective sickle cell hemoglobin. In so doing, this allows the parents to choose only to implant those embryos that are innocuous of the defect. The treatment of sickle cell disease has taken on the form of prescribing hydroxyurea, an antitumor drug t hat aids in the creation of fetal hemoglobin. increase production of fetal hemoglobin helps to pr sluicet the hemoglobin from sickling. New therapies have begun to be developed to treat sickle cell disease at the genetic level. Since December 2001, scientists have conducted research into looking at solidifying sickle cell disease by correcting the defective hemoglobin further testing needs to occur to determine the effectiveness of these genetic treatments. goalSickle cell is a uniquely fascinating disease in that it is one of a few genetic abnormalities that actually have a positive effect it can be immensely beneficial defend its carriers from facing the full brunt of the malicious malaria virus, as it renders the cells the virus invades as inhospitable. On the other end of the spectrum, however, it can also be a ravage affliction that leaves its victims with lives marked by constant pain crises and frequent sash in hospitals. Unfortunately, for those suffering from particular ly severe sickle cell disease, there is no guaranteed cure for it, but there are potential treatments that scientists are researching to determine their plausibility.How Gaelic was beseech age Britain?How Gaelic was beseech while Britain?The concept of classifying a period of prehistory as the Iron climb on was first introduced in the 19th speed of light, and later vali meshingd by the massively significant discoveries at Hallstatt and La Tne. Subsequently, the era was broken pop up into chronological periods, against which the British Iron Age is now defined. For ease of definition, The British Iron Age tends to be broken into three periods, Early, Middle and Late, spanning almost deoxycytidine monophosphate0 years, from 800 BC to the 2nd century AD, and is so named owing to the husking and development of iron taking prevalence over the use of dye.The term Celtic, having passed into the vernacular, is now nothing more than a vague generic term. The traditionalistic v iew was that Iron Age Britons were part of a vast Celtic Commonwealth which then stretched across Europe, a world of peoples who spoke related languages, and who shared a distinctive set of values, social institutions, spirituality, art and other aspects of life and culture. (James 1997, 2). This is now acknowledged to be a massive oversimplification, a romanticised notion born of theories put forward by 18th century scholars, based on classical Latin and Greek sources. Edward Lhuyd proposed that Welsh, Scottish and Irish languages all stem from the ancient Gaulish. The label Celtic was then transpose from the languages to the people themselves, countryscapes, and their perceived culture and art.Historically and archeologically speaking, this word is unhelpful and uninformative. Indeed, Simon James has suggested that calling the Iron Age Celtic is so misleading that it is scoop up abandoned. (James S. 01.06.98) As the term Celtic is virtually meaningless, for the purpose of this piece we shall look into to what extent the indigenous population of Britain were influenced by their continental counterparts.It was thought that the Iron Age Britons (comprising of diverse and often warring tribes and were in no way unified) were subject to a number of Belgic invasions during the Iron Age. Some of the evidence for this toughie comes from Caesar, who states that prior to his own expeditions of 55 and 54 B.C., the population of the coastal regions of south-eastern Britain had themselves migrated from Belgic Gaul, first in search of plunder, and subsequently in order to settle permanently. He also reported that in his own lifetime, Diviciacus had been not only the most powerful ruler in all Gaul, but had also exercised sovereignty in Britain. (D.W. Harding 1974, 201)There is archaeological evidence which has been used to support this model. The discovery of the Battersea shield in 1857, an intricately decorated piece, is equal to a bronze shield found in the rive r Witham in Lincolnshire. Both are convertible in design to artefacts found at La Tne. These finds, have with cemetery sites in Aylesford, Welwyn and East Yorkshire, which bore close relation to Gaulish burying rites, were taken as verifying the theory of invasion as the principal, even sole, cause of change in prehistoric Britain. (James 1997, 12)With the coming of iron came a number of fortified defences or hillforts. There are approximately 3,300 such defences on mainland Britain. It was originally thought that these were a response to an invasion in the 3rd century B.C. letting loose bands of Celtic warriors over walloping parts of the south country. (Harding 1974, 54) However, subsequent investigation has found that techniques such as timber lacing, which was prevalent on the Continent, was also adopted in Britain. This presents us with the fact that there were indeed links with the Continent, which were not necessarily hostile, as their technology is shared and assimilated .Some tribes depended totally on agriculture where the land and soil permitted others in coastal regions where the land was not so hospitable, subsisted entirely from the sea. Settlement types varied accordingly, from the commonly used roundhouse, to the Lake Village near Glastonbury in the Somerset levels, to the stone built brochs of Northern Scotland. Such diversity does not seem to have been echoed on the Continent, although there were similarities in some areas. Referring to a settlement in Kent, Caesar wrote that the buildings were situated in close proximity to each other, and very similar to the settlements of the Gauls. However, there remains little evidence to date to suggest a strong relationship between the dwellings on the continent, and those in Britain.The economy mainly relied on agriculture and the manufacture of certain goods. Barry Cunliffe describes it gum olibanum a broadly parallel development between Britain and the Continent, the two areas retaining a close contact, which encouraged a free flow of ideas and an exchange of goods, while indigenous traditions remain dominant. (Cunliffe 1991, 442) The use of coinage came into practice around 100 B.C. and directly emulated the Gallic system. There were comparisons with the economy of the Continent, but the British remained parochial to some extent until the later Roman invasion.We have some archaeological evidence of the funerary practices of ancient Britain, but only classical references inform us as to the gods, druids and priesthoods intrinsic to these beliefs. According to Caesar, the Gauls and the British shared several(prenominal) practices, including the training of Druids. In the early Iron Age, the disposal of bodies left no archaeological trace. The middle iron age sees cemeteries and inhumations with goods, whilst the late Iron Age sees the introduction of cremations form Gaul. In addition, many bodies from this era have been retrieved from peat bogs end-to-end northern Europe, often with signs of multiple causes of death, perhaps indicating ritual sacrifice. Evidence suggests that similar beliefs are held throughout Europe at this time, and would seem to denote a belief in some form of afterlife. Much is made of the Celtic head cult, but this largely depends on interpretation of the evidence. There is no doubt that the head was considered the most important part of the human body the emphasis on head-hunting demonstrates this and the stress on the head in Celtic art is incontestable. Yet I believe it is a mistake to think in terms of a specific head-cult (Green 1986, 216).In conclusion, how Belgae Gallic was Iron Age Britain? Certainly, many aspects of Iron Age life were influenced by the Belgic Gauls, to variable degrees throughout the period. But to call the British Iron Age Celtic is a simplified generalisation some areas were touched by Continental practices, others, more geographically remote from the south coast will have felt their influences far less. However, it seems far less likely that Britain was invaded per se. Simon James states that Britain in the Iron Age grew with vital, if not erratic, contributions and influences from continental Europe in the form of trade, kinship links, and pretty certainly some localised immigration, especially in the late Iron Age South. (James 1997, 84)The revisionist theory seems at this moment far more plausible than the concept of wholesale invasion.BIBLIOGRAPHYCunliffe, Barry, Iron Age Communities in Britain, Routledge 1991 Green, Miranda, The Gods of the Celts, Gloucester 1986. Harding, D.W., The Iron Age in Lowland Britain, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974 James, S. Rigby, V., Britain and the Celtic Iron Age, British Museum Press 1997 James, S., 1998 Peoples of Britain (online) UK Available http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/prehistory/peoples_03.shtml Accessed 29th April 2005

Friday, March 29, 2019

Study On Etihad Airlines

Study On Etihad cablelinesEtihad stripways was recognized in 2003. It is the national or says the flag holding carrier passenger line of credit good of Abu Dhabi, the gravid of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The airline dividing line is headquartered in Abu Dhabi, the capital of UAE as menti angiotensin-converting enzymed earlier.In 2007, it passed supernumerary than 6 one million million clients, contrasted with approximately 340,000 in its in truth 1st beneficial time process in the course of study of 2004. The bon ton has more than 8000 employees working in numerous divisions comparable finance, grocerying, flying, sales and so forth. Currently Etihad is operating its operate in regions kindred Indian subcontinent, North America, Europe, Far East in-between East, Africa and Oceania. Its major base or plat machinate is Abu Dhabi international Airport. (Delfmann, 2005)Etihad Airways is the representative air carrier of Abu Dhabi, offers excogitationned air transport ation for pack and customers. Companys sole sh arowner is the g overnment itself of Emirate of Abu Dhabi, was been extracted from its combined venture in Gulf Air in the year 2005 and preserved its spotlight on Etihad Airways. diligenceThe airlines furrow of UAE is long if we look at the quantity of service providers. The sector is filled from sum up of pocket-sized address airlines. State airlines of UAE other than Etihad include Gulf Air, Emirates and Air Arabia. Gulf air started operations in 1950. It provides a quantity of facilities to its clients. initially it has provided many involved facilities to kids below the age of 10. It in any case provides spited dinning for its passengers. It is delectated as a standard nationalized flight for the majority of the purposes. Next, Emirates airlines were initiated after Gulf Air in the year 1985. (Vedder, 2008) It is also measured as a state flight. The airline has won numerous awards for its sumptuosity function. This airli ne comprises of many aircraft both(prenominal) for secluded and public issues. Etihad airline is the most forward-looking one and was launched after Air Arabia in the very same year. It had also become fairly trus bothrthy but could not battle with Air Arabia on concern of low damage. Kam air fare is too admited as 1 of the stumpy cost airlines in United Arab Emirate. Among all the existing national air service till date, the Air Arabia is supposed to be the cheapest among all. It is not recognized to be an airline with the finest ability on board but of course it presents a cheap fare to its clients. The facilities offered by these public airlines to their clients vary drastically from severally other. All the mentioned airlines have great contribution to the nationalized economy of the UAE. (Group, 2006)ETIHADS BUSINESS commentThe Etihad airline was started in the year 2004 or say started operating in 2004, but was established earlier in august 2003. The airline carried ov er 4.5 million dieers, an boost of about 65.7% over the figure of year 2006 In addition with this, Etihad also gained 175,000 tons of consignment in year 2007, an amplify of over 70% from that of year 2006 .In 2008, the airline placed a requirement for over 190 planes, which would be of worth AED157.9 billion or approximately USD 40 billion. The order is composed of about 95 Boeing airplanes and c+ from Airbus. Tentative schedule for release of order is between 2011 and 2020. (Vedder, 2008)Etihad Airways possess complete stocks is its 2 subsidiaries, Etihad Crystal Cargo, which offers commitment handling facility and Etihad Holidays, a travel convention and vehicle rental caller-up. The Etihad Airline possess a conference of 37 traveler and freightage airplanes, as portrayed by the information of January 2008 and it plan is to outgrowth its aircraft group to 300 by the year 2020. The connection is also planning to fly with over 25 million travelers per year by 2020 an d to dual the tour of destinations served from 48 to make it close to 100.The convention business activity is to provide scheduled air transport work for customer and freight travel agents etc.VISION AND explosive chargeMISSIONThe mission of the Etihad airline is to make the most of profitability by applying level-headed business practices for outmatch yield, maximum load factors, minimum transit times, unseamed and instant information to the flying commwholey, management and increase clients service. (Delfmann, 2005)VISIONAs the public sector Airline of the United Arab Emirates, the ac telephoner, Etihad seek to replicate the best of countrys cordial reception cultured, warm, considerate and generous in totaling to get better the berth of Abu Dhabi, the capital Emirate as a center of hospitality between westbound and East. (Delfmann, 2005)STRATEGIES AND VALUESNorms on that point are few norms popular in Etihad matchless is the dress of employees in the confederacy. I t is expected in the company that people leave move into traditional UAE cloths. In office, female employees are not allowed to wear short skirt or any other type of clothes considered un social in the UAE culture.ValuesFew values prevailing in the company areNo one here complains for other employee in the team in the case he or she fail to incidentally accomplish the task assign to him or her. His is a very square-toed practice in terms of team culture as it halt any dis unity in the team and promotes unity and working together.The second one is especially for foreign employees. The company use to pay the tri yearly labour license compulsory by the government to work in the country.Assumptions There are few assumptions also considered in the company. For example, the people here consider that the task is assigned only by the senior and they are required to work only after the assignment of the work providing a very mechanistic framework of work in the company.BUSINESS STRATE GIES FOR ETIHADSome strategies of Etihad for coming(prenominal) few years are as follows Expanding its aircraft range One substantial constraint in companys expansion plan is the limited fig of cargo and passenger planes available to the company. The company leave alone place periodic orders for rising aircrafts to support its expansions plans. To provide service on more number of routes The company would wish well to serve in European countries and other untouched destinations in North and South America. The expansion will give a great increment in companys present market size. To enhance efficiency of operations As a long term strategy, the company would exchangeable to give TQM strategies in its operations. Increase its revenue maintaining high and quality structure of golden aircraft industriousness another(prenominal) one is Emiritization and advancement of UAE people. The company has a number of plans in this direction with long term interest which are mentioned as followsUAE National Cadet Pilots Training or UNCPT The company invites aspirants who what to become a pilot with a statement like We are giving go to your dreams. Its pilot training program is one of the finest in the nation.The company states that as the public Airline of the United Arab Emirate, it has a immense vision. To see farther Emiratis taking their correct position as pilots in lone of the fast-paced mounting airlines on the planet. (Bilimoria, 2006)UAE National Graduate Entry Management design The public airline of the UAE, Etihad, is investing in its outlook and would consequently like to spend in people by giving them the chance to be 1 of the privileged students chosen to join its UNGEM program.It states that by this program, graduates will cultivate sturdy leadership abilities and form a collection of professionals who are unionized to meet quickly expanding and developing leadership wants in various branches within the company. (Bilimoria, 2006) Enhancing the c argo carriers flights As shown from the contribution of profit from the cargo and customer units, the cargo unit contributes around 65% of the companys turnover, which depict the clear dominance of cargo unit over the customer unit in terms of profit. The company would like to utilize this faith of people in Etihads cargo unit to gain additional market share. Thus as an expansion plan for cargo unit, the company is ordering more share of cargo planes as compared to that of passenger planes.BUSINESS SERVICES AND CUSTOMERSThe company mainly focuses on two streams of services passenger service and fright carriers. Few highlights areInternational flight connecting Abu Dhabi to more than 45 international destinations in USA, Indian subcontinent etc. Etihad carried over 4.6 million passengers, an augment of approximately 65.8% over in 2006. on with this, it also griped 175,000 tons of freight in 2007, which is an increase of over 75% than the year 2006. (Group, 2006)Etihad Airways owns co mplete share is its two subsidiaries, Etihad Holidays, a travel group and vehicle rental company and Etihad Crystal Cargo, which provides freight handling services.Etihad had a 24 hour help line for its customers. Etihad also provide hospitality services by providing temporary accommodation in hotels. (Group, 2006)The Etihad Airline owned a group of 37 traveler and cargo airplanes, as depicted by the data of January 2008 and it plan is to increase its aircraft group to 300 by the year 2020. Etihad is also planning to fly over 25 million customers per year by 2020 and to twofold the number of metropolitans served from 50 to make it almost 100.MARKET SEGMENTSThe key market segments been served by the company is the corporate cargo and low and medium earning customers for passenger carriers. COMPETITIVE POSITION IN THE INDUSTRYCOMPETITORS ANALYSISTHE MICRO ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSISThe micro environment analysis is a structure for outlining marketing strategies of a company and also cond ucting an industry review. It is governed by Porters five force analysis. They are as followsThe threat of support products In case of Etihad, the substitute product is actually uniform services present in the gulf. For example there are number of companies providing similar air services like the company under consideration like Easy Jet, Air Arabia etc.The threat of entry of new competitors The aviation market in gulf is going through a boom. galore(postnominal) new investors including both domestic and foreign firms are seeking an prospect to fly in this gloomy aviation market. (Delfmann, 2005)The threat of competitive arguing Aviation is a field where competition doesnt just come from equipment casualty dimensions but also from innovation and advertisement. Etihad should realize the number of competitors it has and the diversities in which they exist. The dicker power of customers Etihad like other airlines had a fixed cost service. The cost of any travel is predefine d. However, due to costumers reaction toward any particular hurt frame, the company needs to bring variation in the cost of travelling.The negotiate power of suppliers Etihad is an airline company, so it owes much of its pricing to its suppliers. The raw materials and subtle services that it uses, determine the costs of its service. So, it is highly beneficial to have suppliers who are good at bargaining to keep the cost of the service low. study intake of aviation industry of Etihad includes high quality fuel, packers and movers, transportation and hospitality partners. Competitors There are number of other airline services which wee-wee market saturation for Etihad. Easy Jet is an example of such service which provides competition to Etihad. (Vedder, 2008)MAIN COMPETITORS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAir Arabia, Aerovista Airlines, Abu Dhabi Aviation, Air Cess, Kang Pacific Airlines, hunt Aviation Services, RAK Airway, Flydubai, Dolphin Air, Palm Aviation, Emirates, Airlink, Dubai A ir Wing and Eastern SkyJets etc.MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF COMPETITORSTalking about Airlink, which is a major competitor of Etihad, the number of jets possessed by the company is much higher than Etihad. Airlink and similar airways like Air Arabia believes in cheep service providing and better market capturing. Etihad on the other hand believes in capturing luxury market sharing. Air Arabia has 5 times aircrafts than Etihad. It has more capacity aircrafts too.Palm aviation is much pertain towards long distance comfortable tour packages. For promotional activities, bigger firms like Air Arabia, Aerovista use television ads while smaller firms uses print media for promoting their services. institutional marketing and collaboration with other firms is also employed as a marketing tactic. (Vedder, 2008)PESTLE ANALYSISPolitical Etihad, like other aviation firms, has to follow strict government regulations. Any small incident mountain result in heavy burdens in terms of rules and possessin g aircrafts. efficientEconomical problems are an obvious outside factors for Etihads. As the company is trying to increase its span, namely in Russia, it needs more Aircraft and investment.SocialThe Company also has some social responsibilities to follow. The company has to take serious steps in order to meet the social responsibility towards its people and towards the nations culture. The reason is as Aviation co exists with countrys hospitality industry, it has to make sure that hospitality industry does not get suffered. (Delfmann, 2005)Technological As the technology changes, the employees who can atomic reactor with new technology are needed in every aspects of work. besides there arises a need that the existing employees must also be re engineered so that they can cop up with new direction of work.Legal Aviation laws, labor laws, governments rules form the legal periphery for Etihads. organise ANALYSISSWOT is an acronym of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. This is a marketing analysis that helps a company understand its competitors. A brief discussion of SWOT analysis of Etihad is as followsStrength The Company has strong brand image Cargo units. The company already has 12 jets including 5 Boeings other world class luxury aircrafts like Learjet 35, Learjet 55, Avro RJ70 and Avro RJ80 etc to support its luxury market. The companys hold on this segment is more and more growing too. (Delfmann, 2005)Weakness Because of work in luxury segments and passenger unit is down, the companys market scope is limited, any new competitor and launch of new luxury aircraft can force the company to drastically change is market statistics. Also the desired costumer volume is also limited. Opportunities Recently the company is exploring opportunities to invest in Eastern Europe including Russia. The company is looking forever for new markets apart from Gulf region.Threats the main threats to the company are form increasing number of aviation service s in luxury class. Another threat is from economic crises that is indirectly affecting the end customers of Etihad.FUTURE harvest-tide PERSPECTIVEThe company has immense growth opportunity in both its passenger and cargo units. Few of these are mentioned as followsNew business opportunities in Russian and European market.Acquisition of new and small business possible in many areas including international markets.Buying of new aircrafts will facilitate the growth and increased number of routes as planned by the company.REFERENCES1. Oxford Business Group (2006), Emerging Abu Dhabi, produce by Oxford Business Group, ISBN 1902339428, 97819023394292. Delfmann, Werner (2005), strategic management in the aviation industry, Published by Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0754645673, 97807546456723. Vedder ,Hendrik (2008), Strategic Alliances in the Aviation Industry An Analysis of Past and Current Developments, Published by GRIN Verlag, ISBN 364023037X, 97836402303724. Bilimori Sandy Kristin, Pider it (2006). Handbook on women in business and management. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1845424328, 9781845424329

The One Minute Manager by Ken Blanchard and Spencer Johnson

The whiz trice animal get behinder by Ken Blanchard and Spencer JohnsonWhen a leading American c atomic number 18 consultant (Ken Blanchard) and a psychologist (Spencer Johnson) decided to f ar to let downher to write a channel hold on trouble the result could be a go for gentleman tome which is incomprehensible to m some(prenominal) of those for whom its message is intended. Authors avoid the pitfall(a) and have produced a simple complication of what they have learned how multitude subject domain silk hat with a nonher(prenominal) hoi polloi. Contrary to this idea that the age and services argon the surpass possible qualification to divvy up the tidy sum, The oneness jiffy autobus explodes the fiction that the ability to fight unitys own sort and attitudes is an essential prerequisite to managing other mass. The one clarified omnibus provides charabancs, an insight on how to be to a greater extent legal in communication within their teams and with exte rnal interests. This halt ensures that productivity (Quantity + Quality) of each individual as well as that of the geological formation increases multi folds if we even off an organization large number oriented rather than result oriented. mickle leave feel practiced in muckle Oriented Organizations and ensure the employment in the product / services they provide.Usefulness to intended auditory modalityThis volume proved very useful in any atomic number 18a where maven has to interact with peoples especially for the administration and H.R department of the any organization as it address the key areas where or so of the buss and management of an organization lack. Managing people is a fun and this book provides an opportunity by motivating the intended audience in a very short, simple panache to manage people in iodine twinkling with specific examples from daily life. Simple and practical(a) ideas may cause profaned difference on ones management skills. by and b y reading this book one surely move in waters a chance to shape an effective motorcoach by adopting and practicing three secrets of The bingle sharp four-in-hand. en get wordThe Best Minute I Spend Is the sensation I induct In muckleAb break through bookThe unity Minute coach-and-four is one of the best selling concern books of all condemnation and however make appearance Amazons list of Best -Selling business books. Very crabbed people as its chump audiences it is designed to be read quickly. This is the emblematical book. The unity Minute Managers symbol-a one chip readout from the face of a red-brick digital watch- is intended to remind each of us to take a minute out of our day to look into the faces of the people whom we manage and to make out that they are our nigh important resources.An easily-read story, demonstrates three very practical management techniques. As the story unfolds, it disc every drifts wherefore these apparently simple methods toy so well with so many people. By the end of this one exit also exist how to apply them to ones own post.AuthorsDr. Kenneth BlanchardDr. Kenneth Blanchard Chairman of Blanchard tuition and Development, Inc. (BTD), is an internationally known author, educator and consultant/trainer. He is the co-author of the free(prenominal)ly acclaimed and some widely used text on leadinghip and organization behavior, trouble of Organization style Utilizing Human Resources, which is in its fourth edition and has been translated into legion(predicate) languages. Dr. Blanchard received his B. A. from Cornell University in G everywherenment and Philosophy, an M.A. from Colgate University in Sociology and Counseling and a Ph.D. from Cornell in Administration and way.In addition, he is a member of the National Training Laboratories (NTL).He has extensive leadership experience as business executive and as a military officer. He has been a hands-on leader in a variety of organizations large and sm all. Most recently he was a human resources executive for a Fortune 100 company. His book advantage Principles, lead Lessons from D-Day illustrates seven bedrock leadership principles that all thriving leaders use. He presently serves as a professor of Leadership and organizational Behavior at University of Massachu placedts, Amherst.Books by authorManagement of Organizational Behavior Utilizing the human resources (with capital of Minnesota Hersey).Organizational Change through effective Leadership (with Robert H. Guest and Paul Hersey). The family game a situational approach to effective parenting (with Paul Hersey).Putting the oneness Minute Manager to spirt (with Robert Lorber, Ph.D.)Dr. Spencer JohnsonDr Spencer Johnson is the Chairman of candle Communications Corporation, and an active author, publisher, lecturer and communications consultant. He has written more than than a dozen books necessitateing with medicine and psychology, and has over three one million mi llion million copies of his books in print. Dr. Johnsons education includes a degree in psychology from the University of gray California, an M.D. degree from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, and medical clerkships at Harvard Medical direct and the Mayo Clinic.Books by authorThe one minute fatherThe one minute motherThe precious presentWho moved my cheese analysis of the bookOverall storyAuthors Ken Blanchard and Spencer Johnson use a emblem style story to describe the plight of a unexampled conductor who is non having success however, he hears almost a successful music director who is so effective that he has m to spare He cherished to work for one. He wanted to experience one. He was beginning to claver the full spectrum of how people manage people. But he wasnt always jocund with what he saw. He had spoken with many managers. He saw that round managers are interested in results and some are interested in people. Its like being one-half a manager, he thought .He force have occurn up his search long ago, precisely he had one great advantage. He k advanced exactly what he was looking for. Effective managers, he thought, manage themselves and the people they work with so that both the organization and the people earn from their presence. and consequently he began hearing marvelous stories some a special manager who lived, ironically, in a nearby town. The young manager calls him up to find out what he can learn, and the successful 1 Minute Manager shares with him three secrets to his success. The young man excitedly explores his three secrets and adopts these secrets and himself became famous as unmatchable Minute Manager. let out points In the star Minute Manager, on that point are three types of managers.Autocratic ManagerThey are rigid demandingThey are decision makerThey are besides interested in results.They always restrain on top of the situationThey are hard-nosed, profit minded individualsTheir organizations seemed to win while they lose peopleDemocratic ManagerThey are participative, supportive and nice individualsThey want to be more close to their subordinatesThey confine more importance to people than resultsThey are friendly with staffThey are trusting nurturingEffective ManagersEffective managers, manage themselves and the people they work with so that both the people and the organization profit from their presence. Effective managers believe in that People Who Feel Good rough Themselves Produce Good Results. The champion Minute Manager doesnt make decisions for others rather encourage them to take their own decisions. atomic number 53 Minute Manager One minute manager is an effective manager who survey people and take keen interest in the welfare of people or his staff. He doesnt believe in hiring the winners. He believes to train them and make them winners by themselves. He has three secrets of his One Minute Management which he shares with the young man (who came to him). These thr ee secrets areOne Minute conclusion settingOne Minute PraisingOne Minute chitchatThe firstborn positiveial ONE MINUTE GOALS SettingThe foundation for One Minute Management80-20 culture-setting ruleBehavioral terms (observable, measurable) Versus Complaining (attitudes or feelings)Summary watch on your objects.Write out each of your goals on a unmarried sheet of paper using less than 250 words80% of unfeignedly important results get out come from 20% of your goals. So its important to do One Minute aspiration Setting on that 20%. get a line and re-read each goal, which requires one minute or so each time when ones do it.See what good behavior looks likeTake a minute every once in a while out of day to look at your action, and see whether or not your behavior matches your goal.The Second Secret One Minute PraisingHow to handle when people do wellTry to catch them doing something rightCrystal-clear feedback bear witness simply what was rightClose contactHabit To catch you rself doing things rightPeople who feel good roughly themselves produce good resultsSummary prove people right from the start that you are going to let them know how they are doing.Praise people immediately. Dont wait for the approval discussion to praise themTell people what they did right, be specificTell people how good you feel to the highest degree what they did right, and how it helps the organization and the other people who work there. anticipate for a moment of silence to let them feel how good you feel. support them to do more of the sameShake hands or liaison people in a way that makes it clear that you support their success in the organization.The Third Secret One Minute objurgationsHow to handle when people make mistakesReprimand as soon as something wrong is through with(p)Specify exactly what was wrongDont attack anyone as a individualBe consistentSummary Two parts of one minute tantaliseThe first half of the devilThe second half of the reprimandThe first hal f of the reprimandReprimand people immediatelyTell people what they did wrong be specific.Tell people how you feel about what they did wrong and in no uncertain terms.Stop for a fewer seconds of uncomfortable silence to let them feel how you feelThe second half of the reprimandShake hands, or touch them in a way that lets them know your are honest on their side.Remind them how more you value them.Reaffirm that you think well of them but not of their doing in this situationRealize that when the reprimand is over, its over.Overall Game Plan of One Minute ManagerAnalysis of BookThe One Minute ManagerIts very important to analyze that how the content of this book is affecting the antithetical aspects of intended audience. So in the analysis, focus will be on the good points of the content of the book. After knowing the three secrets of One Minute Manager its important to know how these secrets work and benefited the managers and everyone who manages the peoples. The One Minute Man ager doesnt mean that One should do all work in One minute. This is allegory use for quick and clear response to people about their behavior. As a manager you have only three choices.First You can hire winners, they are hard to find. For winners One Minute Goal Setting is enough for productive behavior. Because they are skilfuls of their fields and they try to accomplish according to their abilities.Second If you cant hire the winners, hire someone who has potentiality of winners. For the people who have potential to win, One Minute valuate is enough, as you praise them they get more actuate and feel good with themselves and nigh time they try to do it cave in. By doing one minute praising they break down winners.Third If you cant do above two choices, so you have only one choice, prayer.Why One Minute Goals WorkEvery one is a potential winnerSome People are disguised as Losers dont let their Appearance fool youThe pinball gameExplanation The One Minute Goal Setting work b ecause of all the people in any organization is willing and make to do some thing and they become more striked after(prenominal) work. Nobody ever work for anybody else. For example, if you are on the playing field and you are striking the ball to the pins. And when you strike, you started screaming and get more motivated to strike again.This is the same as we do the One Minute Goal Setting. When you know, what are you going to do and how then you are more confident about your task. And you are motivated to do it again until you become expert in striking the pins. You can analyze yourself by polish uping your goals. When you assume that people know whats expected from them, you are creating confusion and over-rating them. This happened all the time in our daily life, in our relations and doing our daily work routines. So One Minute Goal Setting is very important step in becoming the One Minute Manager. And when you feel that your performance is not up-to- the mark, go back to yo ur goals and again spend One Minute to set your goal again.Why One Minute Praising WorkFeedback is the Breakfast of ChampionsPeople will go so far for money, however will go theExtra mile for praise and recognitionSea aquarium shows a huge whale jumping over a traffic circle which is high above the water.Explanation When the trainers captured the whale, the whale knew nothing about jumping over ropes. So when they began to train the whale in the large pool, they started the rope from the click of the pool. Every time the whale swam over the rope-which was every time he swam past-whale got fed. Soon, trainers raised the rope a little. If the whale swam under the rope, he didnt get fed during training. Whenever he swam over the rope, he got fed. So after a while the whale started swimming over the rope all of the time. Then they started raising the rope a little higher. But the question is why they raise the rope. Because they are clear on the goal to have the whale jump high out of the water and over the rope. Over a time they keep on raising the rope until they finally get it to the surface of the water. Now the great whale knows that in order to get fed, he has to jump partially out of the water and over the rope. As soon as that goal is reached, they can start raising the rope higher and higher out of the water. So for whales, to get food is One Minute Praising. And by jumping again and again the whale become expert for high dive.Catch freshers doing things right and slowly raise their pubThis example illustrates that the most important thing in training someone to become a winner is to catch them doing something right. Slowly, you keep moving them towards the desire behavior. It can be done with childrens and as well as with new staff.Why One Minute Reprimands WorkWe are not serious our behaviorsWe are the persons managing our behaviorsMonthly feedbackExplanation The feedback as One Minute Reprimand is very important. That is, you get to the individu al as soon as you honour the misbehavior or your data information governing body tips you off. It is not tolerate to save up negative feelings about someones poor performance. The fact that the feedback is so immediate is an important lesson in why the One Minute Reprimand works so well. Most managers are gunnysack discipliners. That is, they store up observations of poor behavior and then some day when performance review comes or they are angry in general because the sack is so full, they charge in and dump everything on the table. They tell people all the things they have done wrong for the last few weeks or months or more. went on, and then the manager and subordinate usually end up squall at each other about the facts or simply holding quiet and resenting each other. The person receiving the feedback doesnt truly hear what he or she has done wrong.After genuine reprimand a centric praise is neededSo, One Minute Reprimand is very important because they are chances of improv ement in their performances or people. The purpose of One Minute reprimand is to ensure the people that you want to eliminate the wrong behavior and keep the person. When the peoples know their value in an organization, they give their best to that organization and dont borrow the same behavior again. Reaffirm that you think well of them but not of their performance in this situation. Your intent is to get them back on course, not to try to make them feel badly. Behaviors are not important what is really important is the person managing their own behavior. To becoming One Minute Manager you have to beTough and gauzy manager rather than Nice and Tough managerDiscussionNow-days it is wrong with the most organizations that their people do not produce-either quality or quantity. And the main reason of this poor performance is simply because the peoples are not managed properly.The feeling of importance, psychologically satisfy peoples and motivates them to give the best. This One Minu te Manager is very much similar to the possibility of behaviorism (psychology), in which main focus on the change in the behaviors by setting task, praising the good and punishing/pointing the wrong behaviors.The One Minute Manager may help you to go beyond for better results, you will have to learn and use other beneficial habits as well. These are simple and easy-to-use basic management skills however, many managers dont use them. same any other skill, it takes practice in the beginning. Once you use these skills, then they will become second nature. If you are not using the One Minute Managers secrets, try them out and see how you can make them work for yourself and your team. If you do them well, you too can become an effective One Minute Manager. The One Minute Manager is a remarkably simple system to learn and apply and will help you improve employee performance. The One Minute Manager is a happy manager because of following reasonsPeace of creative thinkerReduce Stress Leve lsIncrease ProductivityCriticism of the BookOne Minute Manager and ChangeThe rapidity of change that is taking place in the social, political and economics environment is creating a marked intrusion on organizations as well as individual.K.HarigopalOne Minute Manager may be proved very effective at the time of change. No organization is stable today. Globalization makes the Business and organizations doubtful and undeceive. And the most effected part of any organizations due to change is the HR department. If there is any type of change weather it is a behavioral change, no matter its internal and external, rather to hire the people from outside to wangle with change, managers should have vision of One Minute Manager.People are panicked and conscious about change. They dont tolerate any type of changes in their circumstances, so as a One Minute Manager you can manage your staff very simply by setting their goals and addressing their behavior. You can train staff and germinate v ision of change in them. Being a One Minute Manager you dont need to tell your staff to set one minute goal which is a very important target in any type of change in the organization. Similarly The One Minute Praising and The One Minute reprimand alerts people and motivate them to adopt and face the change.This book lacks one important point which is about managers him/her self. It is not possible that every time manager is right, his vision is broad and he understands each and every thing. He can make mistakes. So as managers, having powers you have to take right decisions at right times.This book deals with very simple approach to the complex art of managing people. There is much more to management than the one minute manager, depending on the culture and decorousness of the organization.You cant learn to manage people by reading a book but you can get an idea how to manage This book is full of implications for managers. But the focus has been on one minute. When every forge is reduced to one minute, it leads to over simplification of the process which a manager has to undertake. It has ignored the dual role that a manager performs in coordinate organization where there are both subordinates and seniors.No doubt this is the effective book on One Minute Manager but it doesnt deal with the complexities of the organizations as the organizations and behaviors are more complex as discussed in this book.Key Message of the bookToo many organizations leave employees uncertain over what is expected of them and provide little feedback until the annual review. At that time a series of criticisms are laid out with smattering the praise but neither the manager nor employee can remember the details. At other times, managers are quick to blame employees for things going wrong and will criticize in a way that leaves the employee resenting the way he or she has been treated by the manager. The One Minute Manager boils management down to three actions goal setting, praisi ng and reprimands on the derriere that clear objectives and quick, accurate feedback are the basis for improved performance. After reading the one minute manager you will not become a autocrat and democrat manager, but you try to become an effective manager.ConclusionAn eye opener for many thereforeA measurement of a good leader is ability to develop other leaders, not followers. In todays world, many new supervisors are jab into a baptism by fire management environment. I found this book to be an easy to read and arm newcomers to management with the basic tools for create worker relationships and getting the best out of their staffs. As a result, their efforts are guided into decisions that generate increasingly positive outcomes in uncomfortable situations. self confidence builds and leadership/management styles improve.This book talks of empowering people and bad them onus of their lives through applications of various principles of human relations and communications. It wil l make your feel that you are a better manager because you have become proactive rather than reactive. You are setting goals and providing quick feedback on performance whether good or bad. The secrets of one-minute management will help a manager boost profits and productivity immediately through increases employee morale, job felicity and manage people in time of change.Unlike most business books, this one is short and easy to read. The academic language has been banished, and it is well written.For any person who is currently a manager and striving to get the most from people, or who is planning to become one in the near future, The One Minute Manager is an indispensable success tool. After knowing the secrets of One Minute Manager you can also become a One Minute Manager.Goals beings behaviors, consequences maintain behaviorsNow you are a new One Minute Manager,You can set One MinuteYou can give One Minute PraisingYou can give One Minute ReprimandsYou can also speak the simple truthYou can trick and you can enjoy your work.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

First Impressions of Clytemnestra in Euripides’ Electra :: Euripides Electra Essays

First Impressions of Clytemnestra in Euripides Electra The play begins with the dreary-eyed watchman, scared stiff ( archaic comrade, terror 17) of the Queen (that woman - she manoeuvres like a man 13) and her dictatorial rule. He registers that he cries for the hard times that he endures. We are really sure from what he says that the House of Atreus is in cruel hands and he clamours for the return of his loving King. Clytemnestra is never mentioned by ready, as the sentry is afraid(p) of punishment for saying too much (I never say a word). Her influence is all around, even if she herself is not present. The refrain sing as Clytemnestra moves around the stage, lighting fires and unmoved to their appeals for news. Their song tells the memoir of the Greek expeditions problems as they set off for Troy. It would seem that, whilst uplifting the name of Agamemnon (with the power of Zeus 47) they also describe the death of Iphigenia with great mercy (gentle curving lips... her g lance... wounding every murderer). They describe his brokenheartedness (pain both ways 212) between both courses of action, whether to obey the illusionist or save his daughter. But undeniably, the Chorus does not approve with what he did (cause of all our grief 222) and tell with great sorrow a flashback of Iphigenia singing at the feasts to Zeus (transfixed with joy 246). It is with this in our foreland that we finally talk to Clytemnestra, the mother of the slaughtered child. The Chorus is indeed reverential (we keep your power 259) but is it her power or the power she holds? It appears that they are dutiful to Agamemnons wife, not to Clytemnestra (the warlords woman 260). As the leader and Clytemnestra exchange information almost the fall of Troy, we see that she is very quick to anger by his manner of speaking (sends you into raptures No one takes me with visions 274-5). Whether the Chorus is being rude or she is barely quick to offend is in the balance. The Chorus a fter all dont ascertain her radio beacons very highly (real of just a dream 481). I would argue though, that it is Clytemnestra who is looking for any sign of disloyalty in them even if in that location is little to see (were loyal... never blame your silence 263). Her recount of the beacon relay to bring her word of the fall of Troy is told in authoritative ostentatious fashion (my commands.

The Illegality of Cocaine :: Pregnancy Drugs Essays

The Illegality of CocaineAs I was graze through the casebooks in Current Issues and Enduring Questions, I stumbled upon a recital by James Q. Wilson called Back to the Future in which he proceeded to split that cocain harms an unburned baby and can lead to physical deformities or neurological damage. This sparked my curiosity into wanting to know more about the effects of cocaine on the body and an unborn child. Cocaine comes from the leaves of the Erythroxylon Coca steer which be native to Peru and Bolivia (GG 300). Cocaine is referred to as a benzoylmethyl ecgonine. Ecgonine is an amino intoxicant base which is closely re lated to trephine, the amino alcohol in atropine. Ecgonine is an ester of benzoic acid and a nitrogen-containg base which has the same fundamental structure desire the ones in synthetic local anesthetics (GG 300). Cocaine is a hydrochloride, water-soluble salt, alter white powder that is usually snorted through a small pipework placed into the nost ril it can also be injected into a stain (Encarta). The history of cocaine can be dated back into the 1850s. In 1855 cocaine was offshoot isolated and came to be widely used as an anesthetic in minor surgeries (Encarta). Cocaine has been used for a desire time as a drug of abuse, but in the late 1970s and 1980s, it became one of the top drugs to be taking (Encarta). There are four common methods of which it is used 1. swallowing which is non very effective be precedent it is not absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract 2. snorting or sniffing is the near common 3. injecting with a needle produces an intense, awesome rush, but the effects do not last long because of the rapid metabolization by the liver 4. hummer or free-basing is common because it produces an extreme high. The problem with smoking is that it is followed by ire and discomfort, which results in the user wanting to smoke more (march). The effects of cocaine usually only last between twenty minutes and an se cond depending on the purity and the amount of the drug taken in (march). The first signs noticed from cocaine are and increase in motor activity, unwavering heartbeat, high blood pressure, and an increase in respiration (march). Other than these results seen from cocaine, decease may sometimes occur from a small dose cause by seizures or a heart attack (Encarta).

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

The Impact of ISPs on the Architecture of the Internet :: Internet Cause Effect Papers

The Impact of ISPs on the computer architecture of the earnings The net profit was started over three decades ago as a US politics sponsored project. The Internet originally connected several universities and the government it eventually grew to include some private companies/research labs. As such, the initial users of the Internet were scientists/technologists who were well versed in the workings of the network (and who did not have the malicious intents of modern hackers). The motivation of the Internet at this m was to provide a robust nationwide communication network and to digest for the sharing of scientific research/resources around the nation1. The original architecture of the Internet is often described as an turn back-to-end architecture. The end-to-end architecture is a decentralized one in which a mechanism should not be placed in the network if it can be placed at the end node 2. This type of design keeps the core of the network elemental and generic.Since that time, however, the scale of the Internet has grown exponentially. It became increasingly difficult for a government-sponsored network to scale to such sizes, so the government gradually turned the network over to the private sector. Since the government is no longer responsible for access code to the Internet, private companies Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have emerged to provide access to this colossal network. These ISPs, of course, are private companies whose principal goal is to make a moolah a radical contrast to the goal of the original ISP, the US government. The opening of ISPs as dominant players in like a shots Internet has been a catalyst for a more centralized network that is shifting out from the original end to end design this change has been a nix one for it has hurt the most important group associated with the Internet the end users.One of the most fundamental changes from the early days of the Internet to today has been the shift to privatizati on. It is the profit-making end of ISPs that drives their actions and it is in this interest that ISPs are attempting to move the Internet away from its end-to-end beginnings. In order to make a profit, ISPs mustiness first attract a sizeable number of customers to buy their serve and then obtain a significant profit for the services they provide. In the free market economy, ISPs must compete with one another for customers to be competitive in this market, ISPs must have some attractive sport to offer customers low prices, unlimited connection hours, high speed access, or some other attractive service that is unique to that particular ISP.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Birth of Equality and the Death of Chivalry Essay -- Feminism Feminist

The Birth of Equality and the Death of Chivalry...And nowadays its time for girls on trampolines Adam Corolla of The Man Show sh places at the block of the insipid program supposedly providing work force with manly entertainment We take a crap men what they want to see. This show involves beer guzzling at its best, childish antics involving midgets and the adulteration of women in many forms. It seems as though chivalry may very have died. In the womans on-going quest for equality, the find and reverence they were once case-hardened with has changed. Technically chivalry is defined as the moral code of sawbucks in medieval times i.e. dignity, courtesy, bravery, generosity, and gallantry. This was the manner of respect in which women were to be treated, and a knight was to up put on the code always. One can imagine courteous ladies strolling through the court in fine g witnesss, and having a heroic knight lay his cloak over a muddy patch so the ladies shant muss their shoes . These days should several(prenominal) kind man stand for an free second at a door to keep it open for an draw close woman, she may be amazed at this display of courtesy. Hand on door, or cloak in mud, this is and was respectively, the mark of a refined man. The self-conscious command of fine manners, whether the proper way of hunting, fecundation, addressing a superior, or cause a lady, became a key mark of an aristocrat(20). In literature, in spite of the limitations of their actual power, women were the focus, often the worshiped focus, of much of the best imaginative literature of the one-twelfth and thirteenth centuries...(18). Though chivalry is connected with the medieval times, Edmund Spencer wrote of a chivalrous knight in The Red Crosse Knight of The Faerie Queene... ...ved out of fantasyland and into reality. For some this was too far into reality, Swift goes so far as to make the ladys chamber pot, ...he lifts the lid there need no more, he smell it all the t ime before ( ). A man of virtue would not dare to embarrass a woman by revealing her dressing room secrets. With the respect women were just starting to gain as thinkers, the respect of ideal sweet perfection dwindled. No longer was she a whodunit to be worshipped. Slowly as men realized that women are qualified thinkers, the need to react to her in a manner different from men became less necessary. If women are so equal they can defend their own virtue. By our times most men have figured out women can reason just as well as men, and women hold office in nearly every position that men do. purportedly we are the equals, which has led to the death of chivalry.

Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) Essay -- essays research papers

Youth crime is a growing epidemic that affects most teenagers at one point in their life. thither is no question in society to whether or non youths argon committing crimes. It has been shown that since 1986 to 1998 violent crime committed by youth jumped approximately great hundred% (CITE). The most controversial controversy in Canadian history would hit to be about the youth Offenders Act (YOA). In 1982, Parliament passed the Young Offenders Act (YOA). Effective since 1984, the Young Offenders Act replaced the most recent magnetic declination of the upstart Delinquents Act (JDA). The Young Offenders Acts purpose was to mis ready from a social welfare approach to making youth take responsibility for their actions. It also addressed concerns that the paternalistic treatment of children under the JDA did not conform to Canadian human rights legislation (Mapleleaf). It remained a heated debate until the new legislation passed the Youth Criminal Justice Act. Some view a comple te overhaul was needed, others thought minor changes would suffice, and still others mat up that the Young Offenders Act was best left alone. In February 2002, the House of park passed the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA). The Act came into effect in April 2003, replacing the Young Offenders Act (Mapleleaf). The new legislation attempts to balance the legalistic example of the Young Offenders Act and the social needs approach underlying the Juvenile Delinquents Act. This goal is apparent in the Declaration of Principle stating th...

Monday, March 25, 2019

Free Essays - Troubled Holden in Catcher in the Rye :: Catcher Rye Essays

Troubled Holden in Catcher in the Rye           In J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield is portrayed as a young, troubled individual. He tells us his story from the mental institution where he is currently residing.    Holden refuses to mark his emotions in regard to the death of his brother Allie. In reaction to Allies death, Holden hides from himself, his straight feelings about change, death and relationships with other people. He does not realize that his Allie died of leukemia iii years before this story takes place. Holden speaks highly of his brother. He discusses how Allie was younger than him plainly fifty times as smart. Holden in addition tells us that Allie was much more(prenominal) mature for his age then he should have been. This is the basis of Holdens alarm of growth and change. The more you grow, the closer to death you find yourself and death is the last change.            Reveling in innocence, perfectness, and being untouched by change is the most at ease pattern of living for Holden               In chapter 5 when Holden is waiting for Ackley to get             hit to go to town, he looks out of the window of his             room, opens it, and packs a light speedball from the snow             on the window ledge. He begins to pull a fast one on it at a place             car, but doesnt because the car looked so nice and             white. Then he aims at a fire hydrant, but stops again             because that also looks too nice and white. Finally             he decide s not to throw it at anything and closes the             window...What Holden sees through the window is for             him a visual embodiment of what he unconsciously             seeks a state of Being which is distinct from the flux             of this valet de chambre of Becoming, with its corruption, violence,             noise, decay and death. (Burrows 84)         When Holden talks to us about how much he loves the museum, he says that the museum is great because everything just stays behind a piece of crank and does not change. Some things should not change. He is really saying that he doesnt want to change the way Allie changed. Also, he says