Wednesday, November 27, 2019
AIDS and YOU (May 1987) Essays - Free Essays, Term Papers AIDS and YOU (May 1987) By Martin H. Goodman MD (this essay is in the public domain) Introduction: AIDS is a life and death issue. To have the AIDS disease is at present a sentence of slow but inevitable death. I've already lost one friend to AIDS. I may soon lose others. My own sexual behavior and that of many of my friends has been profoundly altered by it. In my part of the country, one man in 10 may already be carrying the AIDS virus. While the figures may currently be less in much of the rest of the country, this is changing rapidly. There currently is neither a cure, nor even an effective treatment, and no vaccine either. But there are things that have been PROVEN immensely effective in slowing the spread of this hideously lethal disease. In this essay I hope to present this information. History and Overview: AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Defficiency Disease. It is caused by a virus. The disease originated somewhere in Africa about 20 years ago. There it first appeared as a mysterious ailment afflicting primarily heterosexuals of both sexes. It probably was spread especially fast by primarily female prostitutes there. AIDS has already become a crisis of STAGGERING proportions in parts of Africa. In Zaire, it is estimated that over twenty percent of the adults currently carry the virus. That figure is increasing. And what occurred there will, if no cure is found, most likely occur here among heterosexual folks. AIDS was first seen as a disease of gay males in this country. This was a result of the fact that gay males in this culture in the days before AIDS had an average of 200 to 400 new sexual contacts per year. This figure was much higher than common practice among heterosexual (straight) men or women. In addition, it turned out that rectal sex was a particularly effective way to transmit the disease, and rectal sex is a common practice among gay males. For these reasons, the disease spread in the gay male population of this country immensely more quickly than in other populations. It became to be thought of as a "gay disease". Because the disease is spread primarily by exposure of ones blood to infected blood or semen, I.V. drug addicts who shared needles also soon were identified as an affected group. As the AIDS epidemic began to affect increasingly large fractions of those two populations (gay males and IV drug abusers), many of the rest of this society looked on smugly, for both populations tended to be despised by the "mainstream" of society here. But AIDS is also spread by heterosexual sex. In addition, it is spread by blood transfusions. New born babies can acquire the disease from infected mothers during pregnancy. Gradually more and more "mainstream" folks got the disease. Most recently, a member of congress died of the disease. Finally, even the national news media began to join in the task of educating the public to the notion that AIDS can affect everyone. Basic medical research began to provide a few bits of information, and some help. The virus causing the disease was isolated and identified. The AIDS virus turned out to be a very unusual sort of virus. Its genetic material was not DNA, but RNA. When it infected human cells, it had its RNA direct the synthesis of viral DNA. While RNA viruses are not that uncommon, very few RNA viruses reproduce by setting up the flow of information from RNA to DNA. Such reverse or "retro" flow of information does not occur at all in any DNA virus or any other living things. Hence, the virus was said to belong to the rare group of virues called "Retro Viruses". Research provided the means to test donated blood for the presence of the antibodies to the virus, astronomically reducing the chance of ones getting AIDS from a blood transfusion. This was one of the first real breakthroughs. The same discoveries that allowed us to make our blood bank blood supply far safer also allowed us to be able to tell (in most cases) whether one has been exposed to the AIDS virus using a
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Family Tree and Ancestors of Alfred Sharpton, Jr. The Reverend Alfred Al Sharpton is a well-known civil rights activist and Pentacostal minister. He was preaching in his hometown of Brooklyn, New York, by the age of four, and in 1964, at the age of 10, he was ordained as a minister. His parents divorced the same year, after Alfred Sr. began an affair with Al Sharptons half-sister, Tina - his mother Adas daughter from a previous marriage. In 2007, Ancestry.com discovered that Al Sharptons paternal great-grandfather Coleman Sharpton was a slave once owned by a relative of the late segragationist South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond. Tips for Reading This Family Tree First Generation: 1. Alfred Charles SHARPTON Jr. was born 3 October 1954 in Brooklyn, New York to Alfred Charles SHARPTON, Sr. and Ada RICHARDS. Rev. Al Sharpton married Kathy Jordan in 1983 and the couple has two daughters: Dominique and Ashley. Second Generation (Parents): 2. Alfred Charles SHARPTON Sr. was born about 1927 in Florida. 3. Ada RICHARDS was born about 1925 in Alabama. Alfred Charles SHARPTON Sr. and Ada RICHARDS were married and had the following children: i. Cheryl SHARPTON1 ii. Alfred Charles SHARPTON, Jr. Third Generation (Grandparents): 4. Coleman SHARPTON, Jr. was born 10 Jan 1884 in Florida according to his WWI Draft Registration Card and the SSDI, although this may be inaccurate, as he does not appear in the 1885 Florida State Census with the rest of his family. He died 25 April 1971 in Wabasso, Indian River County, Florida. 5. Mamie Belle JACKSON was born 25 Feb 1891 in Georgia and died 12 July 1983 in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. She is most likely the Mamie SHARPTON appearing in the 1910 Berrien County, Georgia Census, with husband C. Sharpton and son Casey JACKSON. Other SHARPTON siblings are also found in Berrien County in 1910. Coleman SHARPTON Jr. and Mamie Belle JACKSON married about 1910 and had the following children: i. Kate Kanovia SHARPTON b. 1 March 1912 and died 1 December 1979 in Florida. She married Louis Baker, Sr.ii. Remather SHARPTON b. abt. 1914 in Florida and died 1932 in Florida.iii. Jesse SHARPTON b. 23 June 1915 in Florida and died 8 Dec 1973 in Indian River County, Florida. He married Emma WARREN.iv. Charlie SHARPTON b. abt. 1917 in Floridav. Magnolia SHARPTON b. abt. 1918; married Chester YOUNG in 1934 vi. Nathaniel SHARPTON b. 3 May 1920 in Liberty County, Florida and d. 16 June 2004 in Brooklyn, New York. He was fully paralyzed in an accident on 9 September 1951.vii. Ladia Bell SHARPTON b. abt. 1922 viii. Elijah SHARPTON b. abt. 1923; married 1942 Jushita ROBINSONix. Elisha SHARPTON b. abt. 1923; married 1942 Inez COXx. Viola SHARPTON b. 24 Aug 1924 d. 24 Aug 2004xi. Essie Mae SHARPTON b. abt. 1926; married ? GREEN2. xii. Alfred Charles SHARPTONxiii. Leroy SHARPTON b. abt. 1929xiv. Raymond H. SHARPTON b. 24 May 1932 d. 23 Aug 1988 6. Emmett RICHARDS was born abt July 1900 in Henry County, Alabama and died 6 Nov 1954 in Henry County, Alabama. 7. Mattie D. CARTER was born 7 Mar 1903 in Alabama and died Dec 1971 in Eufaula, Barbour County, Alabama Emmett RICHARDS and Mattie CARTER were married abt. 1922 in Alabama and had the following children: i. Ree Dell RICHARDS b. abt. 19233. ii. Ada RICHARDS
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Muscular Disorders - Fibromyalgia Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1
Muscular Disorders - Fibromyalgia - Case Study Example She becomes depressed at times, which is one of the symptoms of fibromyalgia. The case also shows that she had been suffering from osteoarthritis in the past. Osteoarthritis is a joint disorder which causes pain in joints. Researches show that in some cases, osteoarthritis can lead to fibromyalgia when a pain in joints expands to related muscles. Therefore, looking at these aspects of the case, we conclude that Mrs Oliver is suffering from fibromyalgia. As Vorvick (2011) states, Ã¢â¬Å"one common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgiaÃ¢â¬ . Substance P is a neurotransmitter, which plays the role of a pain messenger. This chemical substance is present in the brain of a person. In patients suffering from fibromyalgia, the level of substance P is significantly high as compared to the substance P level of a normal person. Stress is the factor, which increases the substance P level in a person. Researches show that people having problems with osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia usually have high substance P levels. Therefore, as we have concluded earlier that Mrs Oliver is suffering from fibromyalgia, we can say that she must be having a high substance P level. According to Clauw (2010), some of the common signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia include chronic fatigue, headaches, painful menstrual periods, numbness or tingling of hands and feet, temperature sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, swelling, and sleep disturbances. Chronic fatigue and sleep disturbance are two of the common signs of fibromyalgia. One of the signs, which differentiate fibromyalgia from other related medical problems, such as, arthritis and polymyositis, is that fibromyalgia does not cause damage to muscles and internal organs. On the other hand, arthritis and polymyositis can cause damage to muscles and joints. Although there is no proper treatment of fibromyalgia in medical science, one can limit the intensity of pain by learning the ways to deal with stress.Ã Ã
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Child soilder literature review - Essay Example Sierra Leone is a small republic founded in 1842 on the West Coast of Africa (Grover, 2009 p1). It is bordered to the north and east by Guinea, to the South by Liberia and to the South-West by the Atlantic Ocean. The country plunged into civil war which lasted throughout most of the 1990s. In the heat of the Sierra Leonean War in 1997, AFROL News announced that about 5,400 children were involved in the war and this was in sync with the UNs official figures. After the war, it was reported that Sierra Leones conflict involved about 6,914 child soldiers (Facts of Sierra Leone, 2011). These children were recruited to take part in the Sierra Leonean Civil War that lasted between 1991 and 2001 (Sillinger, 2003: p3). The root of the Sierra Leonean Civil War and the recruitment of child soldiers has a strong and deep root in international relations. The connection between the Sierra Leonean Wars and international relations has a strong connection with the diamond deposits of the country. Diamonds are found in approximately a third of Sierra Leones territory (Levy, 2003 p2) Up until the late 1980s, Sierra Leone produced about $90m worth of diamonds each year (LeVert, 2007 p81). This figure represents the official value of diamonds that was exported through the legally accepted route of the Government Diamond Office and this could be just a fraction of the actual figure (Forde, 2011 p21). Primarily, British and South African companies have been at the forefront of the exploration of the countrys diamonds and other minerals (Hirsch, 2007 p18). Multinationals from these countries were granted legitimate rights to mine and export the countrys diamonds for several years after the country gained independence from Britain in 1960. The countrys first government led by Sir Milton Margai handed over power peacfully to Siaka Stevens
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Internet and its business capabilities - Essay Example As more individuals owned their own personal computers, the demand for internet access increased, which started off with simple uses such as email, typing and storing digital information (Veeramani 2000). As with all technology, internet technology began to develop at a rapid pace to accommodate concerns over speed and safety which resulted in the development of web browsers and the use of the internet for e-commerce in the 1990s (Veeramani 2000). This signalled the beginning of a new era for businesses as the new opportunities presented by the internet's e-commerce and e-business capabilities promised significant cost savings, new distribution channels and new markets. E-commerce has enabled businesses to conduct transactions over the internet as it enables instant communication and interaction, as well as providing real time access to information, products and services (Veeramani 2000, Pratt 2002). This has meant that the notion and concept of opening hours, location and customer services have been transformed. E-commerce also provides economic benefits by reducing the cost of searching and the cost of transmitting information which has led to efficiencies in transaction costs and the consolidation of supply and demand (SBA 2004). Consumers would also be provided with better information about price, quality and terms of trade. E-commerce would also expand markets and competition which would lead to lower prices and increased quality (SBA 2004). As a result of the opportunities presented by e-commerce and the technology available in this area, small businesses have been quick to capitalise on this and set up their internet presence. This was significant for small and medium sized businesses as they could compete with the larger organisation without having to invest in expensive infrastructure like building and costly marketing campaigns. Small and medium sized businesses were able to identify market niches and improve their customer search process in response to this (Pratt 2002). Printing technology is undergoing rapid advances as photochemical processes are being superseded by digital reproduction (Pratt 2002, SBA 2004), which is environmentally friendly and more cost effective in the long run, as it will eliminate need for procurement. However this new technology has got to be complimented with personnel trained in information technology as customers are now after total business solutions which include after care, image management and communication needs (Pratt 2002, SBA
Friday, November 15, 2019
Food production methods in large functions Introduction The terms of food and beverage services gone from home forms a considerable element of the performance of the hotel and catering industry and like the industry of which it is a fraction , the food and beverage function is characterised both by its variety and its size. Outlets contain private and public division establishments and them choice from small privately-owned apprehension to large international organisations and from top-security reformatory catering to catering in the most luxurious hotels. In this assignment I will try to find out the characteristics of food production and food and beverage service systems and food production and food and beverage service systems. Task 01 Discuss the characteristics of food production and food and beverage service systems. Characteristics of the food and beverage sector A vital part of everyday life Major contributor to the national economy Generates employment Promotes diversity through many different food concepts cuisines An chance to enjoy the company of friends, family and colleagues Fulfils basic needs Food is a basic need for everyday life Food Production Methods Food production may be definite as that phase of the food flow mainly apprehensive with the dispensation of raw; semi prepared, or prepared foodstuffs. The resulting product may be in a ready to provide state, for example in the conventional method (cook serve); or it may experience some form of protection, for example cook-chill or cook-freeze, before being served to the consumer. Production systems Traditional Centralised Sous-vide Cook-chill Cook-freeze batch cooking call-order Traditional method In the conservative parties method, the majority of food is purchased raw, very little falling into what we now call the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢convenience foodsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ category. Facilities are presented for the receipt and storage of goods, the preparation, cooking, holding and service of food. The traditional method is used in most kitchen concern. Cook-Freeze method The expression cook-freeze refers to a catering system based on the full cooking of food pursued by fast freezing, with storage at a controlled low temperature of -18C or under. The method is related to cook-chill apart from refrigeration temperatures. Blast Freezing To decrease the time spent in danger zone, a specially considered Blast Chilling or Freezer is required measure refrigeration equipment just is not competent of removing heat fast sufficient. Blast Chilling The temperature must be concentrated from +70C to +3C or below within 90 minutes. Blast Thawing To de-ice food, the air approximately needs to be relatively heater than the food itself so that heat can be transferred from air to food to dissolve the ice. Hazard zone is between +8 C and +68C, where microorganisms multiply fastest, for as little time as achievable. The germs split into two each 20 minutes. Sous Ã¢â¬âvide method Sous-vide are more fresh food processing technique residential in the late 1970s. The sous-vide methods of food construction (vacuum cooking at exact temperature 138 degrees and time). Centralised distribution This method is frequently adopted by huge chains that are looking to subcontract all or measurement of their food production. Cook-Chill method This method is a catering coordination based on normal preparation and cooking of food pursued by rapid chilling and storage space. The Chilled food necessitates low capital outlay and minimum workforce. Service Systems Table/Plate service Counter/Buffet service A la carte Table dÃ¢â¬â¢hÃ ´tel Silver service Family service FlambÃ © service Specialist food service Table/ Service Food is organized, placed on individual tableware and delivered to the consumers. This method is used in the hotel and self-determining restaurants. Buffet service Food is prepared in move forwards. Big quantities of food then placed in containers and served from a table in the restaurant. Used in consultation and banqueting. Family/ English service Food is prepared and placed in dishes. Server then transportations to restaurant, it is placed in the centre of tables. Chinese and Middle Eastern Cultures. Silver/Russian service Food is prepared/ cooked, placed on hot silver containers. some fine dining, consultation and banqueting. A la carte Hotel or restaurant meal consisting of several differently priced dishes which are cooked frequently when ordered from a menu. A guest orders independently and pays for them separately. Table dÃ¢â¬â¢hÃ ´tel Is generally a restaurant meal consisting of a predetermined number of already prepared dishes, at a fixed price for a complete meal for one person. FlambÃ © service/Gueridon Food is prepared but not cooked. Attendant puts food on a convenient trolley and transfer into front of house neighbourhood. The food is prepared in front of the guests. Specialist food service A food overhaul specialist may arrange a selection of meals. Most employers require their food service specialist to have at slightest a high school diploma. Acquaintance of specialist food service should consist of: basic food handling, nutrition, sanitation measures. Discuss factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems. Factors affecting recipes and menus for specific systems Size of operation Objectives of the operation Quality of the operation Nature of the menu Quality of customers Budget of the customers Customer needs Availability of resources The others factors affecting menu and recipes for specific system Size of the kitchen, consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s contentment, and price of items programmed, management decisions costs, availability of items, type of service, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s value, and demographic features, food habits and predilections, flavour and appearance of dishes, nutritional importance. Menu can be an outstanding selling tool to supplement the indicative selling of staff. Customer perceptions: keeping your consumers happy can be harder than you suppose. Happy customers result in: (repeat sales, positive company image, and high quality customerÃ¢â¬â¢s referrals) Space and equipment in the kitchen will manipulate the composition of the menu; Every establishment has a intention food cost to be achieved, the cost, preparation and production of the food items, have to well the target. Business stand up for profit; it is difficult for menu fashionable to make a customer and business friendly menu, to cover all costs. Accessibility of ingredients in seasonality and suppliers require be taken into reflection. Colour balance is essential; customers should be able to Ã¢â¬Ëeat with their eyesÃ¢â¬â¢. Ethnicity and nutritional value: Nutritional balance is important to make certain that the dishes are produced as nutritiously as potential (protein, carbohydrates, and vitamins). Menu is made for customer contentment, but if the items do not costume customerÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnicity and nutritional importance then it is a big difficulty. As we have only 60 guests, a medium kitchen is enough, the constituents we use in our menu are straightforward to find, and two or three waitress will be enough. Buffet/Counter service has the next advantages: can be provide a large number of people, customer have choice, customers are part of the development, fewer staff required, service staff require less skills, fewer objections due to their decision-making; Disadvantages: Queuing, food presentation can be pretentious; food can run out, food excellence affected due to temperature and mixing service crockery. Plate service has the next advantages: presentation, placed on individual plates, quality, portion control. Disadvantages of Plate service are: Require high quality and highly skilled chefs; consumers sometimes have to remain for food delivery. Conclusion Modern day food and beverage processes are progressing to get better in the quality, and the service. Professionalism is increasing, through improved training and development. The quality of service is becoming the generally important differentiating factor when consumers are choosing between different establishments. In this assignment I wrote about characteristics of food production and food and beverage service systems and affecting recipes and menus for specific systems.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Understanding Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease To date, there are no specific diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's Disease. Diagnosis can only be made by an expert examination after the person has already developed symptoms. Biochemical measures can be used such as a screening strategy monitoring the dopamine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Otherwise, specifically 6(18F)dopa positron emission tomography can be used for a direct measurement of dopamine activity. Using a computer to assess movement time is another test for Parkinson's disease. To examine the electrophysiological characteristics of tremor and preclinical nigral dysfunction characteristic of Parkinson's EMG (electromyographic recordings) can be used. Finally, a symptomatic screening is often utilized and consists of nine symptom related questions, as well as disease specific and drug specific questions. This provides an indirect functional measure of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Facts about Parkinson's Disease Increasing age strongly increases the risk of Parkinson's disease. Male gender and possibly Caucasian ancestry are associated with more modest increases in risk. The reported prevalence of Parkinson's disease varies widely in international community-based studies; ranging from 31 to 328 per 100,000 people. Whether these differences represent actual differences in the occurrence of disease cannot be easily determined. This is due to the limited number of studies conducted and restricted population samples used. The risk factors of Parkinson's disease are primarily environmental and are not genetically based. Clinical Features The main clinical features in Parkinson's Disease include rigidity, bradyki... ...an de Silva, H.A.; Khan, N.L.; & Wood, N.W. (2000). The genetics of Parkinson's disease. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 10:3 (June); 292-298. Tanner, C. M. (1996). Early Intervention in Parkinson's Disease: Epidemiologic Considerations. Ann Epidemiol. 6: 5; 438-441. Tasker, R.R.; Lang, A.E.; & Lozano, A..M.. (2000). Pallidal and Thalamic Surgery for Parkinson's Disease. Experimental Neurology. 144:1; 35 - 40. Veldman, B.A.J.; Wijn, A.M.; Knoers, N.; Praamstra, P.; & Horstink, M.W.I.M. (1998 ). Genetic and environmental risk factors in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 100:1;15-26. Volkmann, J.; & Sturm, V. (1998). Indication and results of stereotactic surgery for advanced Parkinson's disease. Critical Reviews in Neurosurgery. 8:4; 209-216. For information regarding Parkinson's Disease: http://www.parkinsonsweb.com/
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Whether you call it harassment, intimidation, or bullying, this form of violence affects many school children each day as they enter their classrooms. Bullying is defined as having three essential components: (1) aggressive behavior that involves unwanted negative actions; (2) a pattern of behavior repeated over time; and (3) an imbalance of power or strength (Olweus, nd). Bullying is not a new phenomenon in schools. It has been prevalent for decades, but the recent reports of suicide amongst bullied children, as well as school shootings as Ã¢â¬Å"pay backÃ¢â¬ for the torment, is rising in alarming rates. Physical taunting, such as hitting and spitting, along with verbal name calling and malicious threats, turn school environments into a climate of fear and terror for these children. Psychologically, children are affected when they are socially excluded, have vicious rumors spread about them or are humiliated daily (Ericson, 2001). The impacts of bullying follow these children into adulthood, leading to depression, mental health issues and physical problems that affect the healthcare system. Programs that recognize, intervene, and prevent bullying must be implemented in schools to prevent the long-term health issues that will arise in coming years. As a community, a clear message must be sent to ensure that bullying will not be tolerated in schools, consequences will be executed for those defying the programs and that a safe, risk free environment will be provided for all children. The former mentality of Ã¢â¬Å"kids will be kidsÃ¢â¬ will no longer be tolerated. Types of Bullying Bullying can be seen in a variety of behaviors. Dan Olweus, a pioneer in the study of bullying and the author of The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (Olweus, nd), defines various types of bullying that affect the health and welfare of school-age children. The nine most prominent are: 1. Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and bad names; 2.Ã Bullying through social isolation; 3. Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking, shoving or spitting; 4. Bullying through lies and false rumors; 5. Having money taken or things damaged by students who bully; 6. Being threatened or forced to do things by students who bully; 7. Racial bullying; 8. Sexual bullying; 9. Cyber bullying including cell phones and Internet (Olweus, nd). According to the U.S. Department of Justice, a report by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) found that 17 percent of surveyed children responded to having been bullied by others sometimes or weekly, 19 percent had bullied others sometimes or weekly, and 6 percent had both bullied others and were bullied themselves. The survey, the first nationwide research on bullying in the United States, questioned 15,686 public and private school students in grades six through ten. Through this research, it was found that 1.6 million children were bullied at least once a week and 1.7 million children bully others just as frequently (Ericson, 2001). Effects of Bullying The American Medical Association recognizes bullying as a public health problem that leads its victims to suffer from healthcare issues. Forums are held by researchers and healthcare professionals to combat the effects and problems associated with bullying. Among the hindrances identified by researchers and experienced by those who are bullied are headaches, sleep problems, stomach troubles, low self-esteem, depression, loneliness, and thoughts of suicide (Fleming & Towey, 2002). Researchers have found that as many as 160,000 students stay home from school on any given day for fear of being bullied (Fleming & Towey, 2002). Students have a right to feel safe in school and receive the stress free education they deserve. The AMA recognizes that bullying is not just an educational problem or strictly a problem to be addressed by schools and parents. It is understood that this is a healthcare issue that must also be taught to be recognized in medical and nursing schools alike (Fleming & Towey, 2002). Regulatory Issues Currently forty-five states have anti-bullying laws. The state of South Carolina adopted anti-bullying legislation in 2006. Current legislation mandates each school district to adopt a policy prohibiting harassment, intimidation, or bullying at school. The school district must involve parents and guardians, school employees, volunteers, students, administrators, and community representatives in the process of creating the policy (National Association of State Boards of Education, 2009). Most states have suitable laws that reflect what bullying is, how it affects the victim and what school districts must do to decrease the harassment. While this anti-bullying legislation looks perfect on paper, what many school districts lack is enforcement of these regulations within their schools. In January 2010, 15 year old Phoebe Prince from South Hadley, Massachusetts, hanged herself after being harassed and bullied for months from students at her high school. School officials failed to stop it, even though the bullying was Ã¢â¬Å"common knowledgeÃ¢â¬ for months. PhoebeÃ¢â¬â¢s mother twice complained to school staffers, and some bullying was witnessed by teachers (Hampson, 2010). Goals and Recommended Solutions The goal is not only to design effective school policy on bullying but to make it crucial to implement and impose its content. A zero-tolerance disciplinary policy must be adopted which would enforce expulsions for fighting, bullying, and violent behaviors (Almond, 2008). Evaluating the policyÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness to assess the safety and security of the school and identify actions that can make improvements can be accomplished through student and parent surveys. Reports of bullying from victims and teachers will heighten community awareness and will determine whether changes in policy or law must be initiated. It is also necessary to have everyone on the local level involved. Not only school officials and educators, but janitors, lunchroom workers, school nurses, and parents must be willing to make bullying education part of the school curriculum and eager to contribute to the programs. Keeping abreast of current anti-bullying information is essential. Web sites like www.bullyinginfo.org and www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov provide current data and resources associated with bullying (Rudolph, 2010). In October 2010, the South CarolinaÃ Association of School Administrators (SCASA) initiated the Bullying Prevention Initiative through a federal grant (Long, 2010). They are selecting four pilot schools in the state to execute the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, which is known to decrease bullying by 25 to 50 percent if properly instituted. The training is not mandated by state law and costs about $2000 dollars per elementary school (Long, 2010). Many school officials are hesitant to begin the program because of the cost, but how can we put a price on the safety and health of children? Conclusion To allow bullying to take place in any school is a travesty. The devastating effects may impact children for their entire lives. Healthcare providers, educators, local government, and parents must work together to bring this healthcare issue to a halt. Enforcement of policies must be taken seriously and consequences enforced. This problem affects thousands of students daily and can no longer be tolerated. Suicide and health implications do not occur from Ã¢â¬Å"childÃ¢â¬â¢s play.Ã¢â¬ Bullying is a form of terrorism, and those who oppress and torment others must be disciplined for their actions. References Almond, L. (2008). School Violence. (pp 19). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Ericson, N. (2001). Addressing the Problem of Juvenile Bullying (Vol. 27). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Fleming,M and Towey, K,( Eds.) (2002). Educational Forum on Adolescent Health: Youth Bullying. Chicago: American Medical Association. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/39/youthbullying.pdf Hampson, R. (2010, April 4). A Watershed Case in School Bullying. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-04-04-bullying_N.htm Kaiser, C. (2009, May 29). Call bullying what it is: terrorizing. Philadelphia Health Care Examiner. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/health-care-in-philadelphia/call-bullying-what-it-is-terrorizing?r Long, M. (2010, October 26). Educators introduce new
Friday, November 8, 2019
Biography of Ferdinand Magellan, Portuguese Explorer Ferdinand Magellan (February 3, 1480Ã¢â¬âApril 27, 1521), a Portuguese explorer, set sail in September 1519 with a fleet of five Spanish ships in an attempt to find the Spice Islands by heading west. Although Magellan died during the journey, he is credited with the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Fast Facts: Ferdinand Magellan Known For: Portuguese explorer credited with circumnavigating the EarthAlso Known As: Fernando de MagallanesBorn: February 3, 1480 in Sabrosa,Ã PortugalParents: Magalhaes and Alda de Mesquita (m. 1517Ã¢â¬â1521)Died: April 27, 1521 in the Kingdom ofÃ Mactan (nowÃ Lapu-Lapu City,Ã Philippines)Awards and Honors: The Order of Magellan was established in 1902 to honor those who have circumnavigated the Earth.Spouse: MarÃ a Caldera Beatriz BarbosaChildren: Rodrigo de Magalhes, Carlos de MagalhesNotable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"The church says the earth is flat; but I have seen its shadow on the moon, and I have more confidence even in a shadow than in the church.Ã¢â¬ Early Years and Voyages Ferdinand Magellan was born in 1480 in Sabrosa, Portugal, to Rui de Magalhaes and Alda de Mesquita. Because his family had ties to the royal family, Magellan became a page to the Portuguese queen after his parents untimely deaths in 1490. This position as a page allowed Magellan the opportunity to become educated and learn about the various Portuguese exploration expeditions- possibly even those conducted by Christopher Columbus. Magellan took part in his first sea voyage in 1505 when Portugal sent him to India to help install Francisco de Almeida as the Portuguese viceroy. He also experienced his first battle there in 1509 when one of the local kings rejected the practice of paying tribute to the new viceroy. From here, however, Magellan lost the viceroy Almeidas support after he took leave without permission and was accused of illegally trading with the Moors. After some of the accusations were proven to be true, Magellan lost all offers of employment from the Portuguese after 1514. The Spanish and the Spice Islands Around this same time, the Spanish were engaged in trying to find a new route to the Spice Islands (the East Indies, in present-day Indonesia) after the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the world in half in 1494. The dividing line for this treaty went through the Atlantic Ocean and Spain got the lands west of the line, including the Americas. Brazil, however, went to Portugal as did everything east of the line, including India and the eastern half of Africa. Similar to his predecessor Columbus, Magellan believed that the Spice Islands could be reached by sailing west through the New World. He proposed this idea to Manuel I, the Portuguese king, but was rejected. Looking for support, Magellan moved on to share his plan with the Spanish king. On March 22, 1518, Charles I was persuaded by Magellan and granted him a large sum of money to find a route to the Spice Islands by sailing west, thereby giving Spain control of the area, since it would in effect be west of the dividing line through the Atlantic. Using these generous funds, Magellan set sail going west toward the Spice Islands in September 1519 with five ships (the Conception, the San Antonio, the Santiago, the Trinidad, and the Victoria) and 270 men. The Early Portion of the Voyage Since Magellan was a Portuguese explorer in charge of a Spanish fleet, the early part of the voyage to the west was riddled with problems. Several of the Spanish captains on the ships in the expedition plotted to kill him, but none of their plans succeeded. Many of these mutineers were held prisoner and/or executed. In addition, Magellan had to avoid Portuguese territory since he was sailing for Spain. After months of sailing across the Atlantic Ocean, the fleet anchored at what is today Rio de Janeiro to restock its supplies on December 13, 1519. From there, they moved down the coast of South America looking for a way into the Pacific. As they sailed farther south, however, the weather got worse, so the crew anchored in Patagonia (southern South America) to wait out the winter. As the weather began to ease in the spring, Magellan sent the Santiago on a mission to look for a way through to the Pacific Ocean. In May, the ship was wrecked and the fleet did not move again until August 1520. Then, after months of exploring the area, the remaining four ships found a strait in October and sailed through it. This portion of the journey took 38 days, cost them the San Antonio (because its crew decided to abandon the expedition) and a large amount of supplies. Nevertheless, at the end of November, the remaining three ships exited what Magellan named the Strait of All Saints and sailed into the Pacific Ocean. Later Voyage and Death From here, Magellan mistakenly thought it would only take a few days to reach the Spice Islands, when it instead took four months, during which time his crew suffered immensely. They began to starve as their food supplies were depleted, their water turned putrid, and many of the men developed scurvy. The crew was able to stop at a nearby island in January 1521 to eat fish and seabirds, but their supplies were not adequately restocked until March when they stopped in Guam. On March 28, they landed in the Philippines and befriended a tribal king, Rajah Humabon of Cebu Island. After spending time with the king, Magellan and his crew were persuaded into helping the tribe kill their enemy Lapu-Lapu on Mactan Island. On April 27, 1521, Magellan took part in the Battle of Mactan and was killed by Lapu-Lapus army. After Magellans death, Sebastian del Cano had the Conception burned (so it could not be used against them by the locals) and took over the two remaining ships and 117 crewmembers. To ensure that one ship would make it back to Spain, the Trinidad headed east while the Victoria continued west. The Trinidad was seized by the Portuguese on its return journey, but on September 6, 1522, the Victoria and only 18 surviving crew members returned to Spain, completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Legacy Though Magellan died before the voyage was completed, he is often credited with the first circumnavigation of the Earth as he initially led the voyage. He also discovered what is now called the Strait of Magellan and named both the Pacific Ocean and South Americas Tierra del Fuego. Magellanic Clouds in space were also named for him, as his crew was the first to view them while sailing in the Southern Hemisphere. Most important to geography though, was MagellanÃ¢â¬â¢s realization of the full extent of the Earth- something that significantly aided to the development of later geographic exploration and the resulting knowledge of the world today. Sources Editors, History.com. Ã¢â¬Å"Ferdinand Magellan.Ã¢â¬ Ã History.com, AE Television Networks, 29 Oct. 2009.Ã¢â¬Å"The Ages of Exploration.Ã¢â¬ Ã Exploration.marinersmuseum.org.Burgan, Michael.Ã Magellan: Ferdinand Magellan and the First Trip Around the World. Mankato: Capstone Publishers, 2001.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Jakia Brow4 Essays - Social Information Processing, Proposal, Sales Jakia Brown Bus 3100 Dr. April Anderson 22 April 2018 Exercise 11-6 In general, it would be important for the most experienced member of a department to have final approval of the content for the department's wiki. Since that individual will most likely be held responsible for the project that results from the wiki, he or she should ensure that it contributes to a positive image of the organization, at large. At the same time, careless use of this authority can defeat the purpose of the wiki by discouraging participation by others. When it comes to the final approval of the online content of the department's wiki, the most experienced member of the department should be considered to approve the content for online publication. The experienced person processes the knowledge as to what should be presented in the wiki that suits the company's credibility and goodwill. Exercise 11-7 A line chart is the recommended visual. A line chart is commonly used to show trends over time or the relationship between two variables. In line charts that show trends, the vertical, or y, axis shows the amount, and the horizontal, or x, axis shows the time or other quantity that is being measured. Business documents visuals are intergraded with text, so the readers can move back and forth between text and visuals . Successful integration involves four decisions: maintaining a balance between visuals in the text, referring to visuals in the text, placing the visuals in a document, and writing titles and other descriptions. Exercise 11-8 If the company receives a solicited formal outlining to a particular problem , it is not ethical for the company to adopt the proposal's recommendations without hiring the firm. This is because the company which submits the proposal must research properly and analyze the competitors of their clients in the market and authenticate that the proposal is workable, attractive and error free. The proposed solution must be in the form of a work plan with schedule as well as the information of its implementation . It must also include information, as well as the firm's qualification and the breakdown of its project cost which must be further done with a lot of effort. So, all there is only possible when the hired firm makes the right effort by collecting all the information from the market and then with its expertise and experience tries to make it better. Exercise 11-9 Yes, an executive summary is a persuasive message. An executive summary or synopsis is a brief overview of a reports important points, designed to give readers a quick preview of the reports contents. It is a concise representation of an entire report. A summary can be informative or descriptive. They are intended for readers who lack the time to study the text. The fact that executive summarizes a larger document makes it persuasive in that nature.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
English-Only Rule at the Workplace - Assignment Example This paper will begin with the statement that Title VII provides guidelines on the possible application of English-only rules at the workplace. The application of such rules can be done non-discriminatorily under various circumstances at the workplace. It is very important for employers to understand the guidelines of Title VII on the use of English-only rule policies at the workplace since it is very easy to face litigation from non-English speaking employees of the company.Ã The application of English-only rules at the workplace is justified by Ã¢â¬Ëbusiness necessityÃ¢â¬â¢ in the event that it is a requirement for an employer to work efficiently and safely (Bennett & Hartman, 2009). For Morales, it important to note various circumstances, which may justify the adoption of English-only rules. Morales as the employer and majority of the workers speak only English. In these circumstances, it complies with Title VII to apply English-only rules as an important requirement for com munication with clients, coworkers, or supervisors who speak English only. This is applicable at the MoralesÃ¢â¬â¢ warehouse where the majority of the workers and the supervisor (Morales) speaks only English.Ã Another important exception to the English-only rule is safety requirements at the workplace (Vettori, 2007). Some high-risk jobs require employees to have a uniform language in case of emergencies. At the warehouse, Morales may justify the application of such a rule citing safety issues, which may be valid in this kind of business. Title VII allows for the adoption of English only rules where there is evidence of safety justifications for such a rule. Further, this rule may be justified for efficiency purposes in cooperative assignments where the majority of people speak only English and hence citing the importance of speaking a language understood by all (Wheeler, Klaas & Mahony, 2004).
Friday, November 1, 2019
Homicide - Case Study Example This paper cover what happens in a typical homicide case, the people involved in the homicide case and the duties they carry out. The court of law also plays a major role in a homicide case as discussed in this paper. This paper emphasizes on the fact that in every homicide case what is very essential is the evidence as this will lead the investigators to track out the suspect. If an evidence sample is contaminated or destroyed by bad weather conditions, for example, sunlight and rainfall; then the evidence will be destroyed, and no case can be carried out. It is crucial in every homicide case for the evidence to be protected at all costs. Homicide is the unlawful killing or murder of a living human being committed by another human being with intent to cause major harm or to kill. Depending on the case it may or may not be a criminal action. For example in the case of a defense strategy, after a comprehensive investigation the homicide may not be ruled out as a criminal act. After ev ery homicide incident, a methodical investigation should be executed so as to know the core cause of the demise as this is also in accordance with the protocol. A crime scene is a place set aside by the police force because an illegitimate action or activity took place there. A crime scene provides evidence of the events that took place in that area, the sequence of events, the time the crime took place, evidence from the suspect in the form of personal effects of the suspect and the evidence from the scene on the suspect. The main principle of a crime scene is to find the key evidence so as to provide investigative and interpretive leads. The crime scene in this homicide case study is a major parking zone next to an isolated forest. The forest where the body was discovered also acts as a crime scene. Blood is at the parking area, and a trail leads to the forest where the body was disposed off. The blood on the described areas acts as crime scenes; they give a definite proof that th e crime took place there. From the photographic evidence; the victim was murdered at the major parking zone and later on dragged in the forest zone. Evidence that the victim was murdered in the parking area is the blood deposit as it seems some time passed before the victim was dragged in the forest; this is based on the photographs one can notice two blood stains from it. One blood stain has dried up while the other one is still fresh as compared to the first stain. From the crime scene, there is also blood splatter, seems the victim was trying to resist whatever was going on. The crime scene is as well near the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s residence as seen on the crime scene sketch map (Hess & Orthmann, 2010). The management for the synchronization of a homicide investigation depends on the Criminal Investigation Department/ Division. This is an agency that deals with the major crimes section. It is a division of the law enforcement force. The conclusions concerning a homicide case together w ith the proper presentation of the evidence gathered is a communal duty of the complete police force department. The investigative steps and strategies involved in this homicide investigation so as to obtain the correct evidence are described below; the people involved in the crime scene as well as the duties they perform so as to protect the crime scene are also explained in a precise manner as follows: The first person to arrive at a homicide scene is a responding police officer. The initial responding officer must be very swift in arriving at the crime scene as delays may result to fundamental observations, witnesses, evidence going unnoticed. The duties and responsibilities of the first officer at