Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Heraldic Code of the Philippines Essay Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t walk in front of me, I may not follow; donÃ¢â¬â¢t walk behind me, I may not lead; Just walk beside me, and be my friendÃ¢â¬ . I have one such good friend who walks beside me and who extends his hand, when I am about to slip and fall. He is my greatest asset in life, which I treasure more than anything else in this world. He is my best friend. My best friend is Tom Sangma. We come from the same neighbourhood. Our houses are situated close to each others. Both Tom and I are of same age and belong to more or less same economic background. In fact, what has cemented our friendship deep is that our families have been close to each other for a long time. My father and his father were classmates. My motherÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend is TomÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. Another reason, which probably helped us to become good friends, is that we have grown together. We have spent our childhood days playing, fighting, learning, and enjoying together. My memory of sweet bygone days of the past is a nostalgic memory of happy days spent together in TomÃ¢â¬â¢s company. Today Tom and I study in Class X in a reputed school in the town. We generally go to school together and have been lucky enough to be studying in the same class for the past ten years and more. Tom has many excellent qualities of heart and mind. His simplicity, smartness, neatness, intelligence, straightforwardness, cool temperament, pleasant behaviour, gentle ways, dutifulness, etc. have made him one of the most liked and popular students in the school. TomÃ¢â¬â¢s sweet temperament is his greatest quality. He never hurts others or speaks ill of others. He has a charming personality. For several years consecutively, he has been given the Ã¢â¬ËBest StudentÃ¢â¬â¢ award in the school. Despite my best efforts I have never managed to reach his level. Yet I never feel jealous of him. Because he helps me more than anybody. He tries to do all he can to make me come up to his level. He never goes to any function or party or film without me. I do the same for him. Whenever I am sick, he is the first to come and see me. There is no function in my home without his presence. The same is true in his house as well. All these have combined to make our friendship deep and lasting. The best trait that I admire and like most in my friend is his disciplined life. He would not do anything that goes against accepted norms or decency. He gets up on time, does his homework always, attends school regularly, respects his teachers and elders and never indulges in unhealthy ways such as, smoking, taking alcohol, idling away time, skipping classes etc. His principle of Ã¢â¬Ëduty first- enjoyment secondÃ¢â¬â¢ is something that I find difficult to follow, yet try to imitate. He corrects me whenever I commit any mistake. For me he is a source of inspiration, support and also a role model to imitate. I am ever grateful to the almighty for having given me such a good friend. I cherish it as my greatest treasure. I am sure our friendship will grow deeper and deeper in the years to come. I wish everyone had such friends in life. One cannot describe the thrill and the joy of journeying together in life, sharing its ups and downs, rainbows and thunders and Good Fridays and Easters. It has to be experienced.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grown in Brooklyn Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, what a splendid name for this book. Most people that have not read this book might only think that this book is about a tree growing in Brooklyn. Not knowing that this book is really about Francie Nolan. Francie is the tree that is growing in Brooklyn. She is growing up so quickly, not because she wants to, but because she has too. Francie was basically forced to grow up in her mid-teens. She had to help support her family. The world that Francie lived in also contributed to her growth into womanhood. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Tree Grows in Brooklyn takes place during the early 1900's, in the slums of Williamsburgs , Brooklyn. The slums are where the Nolan family lives their whole lives, although Francie later moves out and travels into New York City for her well paying job. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Nolan family consists of four strong hearted people. The Nolan's are very unique for a family who lives in the slums of Brooklyn; they are a pretty decent family of four. Kate is the beautiful young mother of Francie and Neeley and the wife of Johnny. Kate holds a janitress job to keep her family together and from starving, she is basically the sole provider for the family. Johnny, Kate's drunk husband, is considered to be a good man, but he is nothing but a drunk who, has an off and on again job as a free lance singer/waiter. Their daughter, Francie, who is the main character of the book, is a very intelligent young woman. Francie always wants to do the best in everything that she tries. Last but not least is the youngest Nolan, Neeley. He is Francie's younger brother. He is also loved the most by his mamma. Neeley is Katies Favorite and this is quite obvious. The Nolan's are unique. They have hope that life will get better. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Nolan family have an old tin-can bank that they keep in a closet in their house. Katie was told to have this bank to accumulate money to buy land so she could pass it on to her children. They put as much in as they can afford every day, and it slowly accumulates little by little. This book shows that, a penny saved, is a penny earned. And that every little bit counts. It makes you realize that money is not everything.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Initially the study of lifespan development rose due to DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to understand human evaluation (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Developmental psychology is concerned with the changes of people during their life span including motor skill changes, problem solving changes, moral understanding changes, but it is originally concerned with these changes during infancy and childhood (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Without any doubts, Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), are two major contributors who have affected developmental psychology with their theories on human development. According to Lerman (1996), Piaget and Vygotsky belong to two different traditions; Piaget belongs to the constructivism perspective that sees learning as construction and Vygotsky to the activity theory perspective that sees learning as an appropriation. According to Piaget, cognitive development results from the development of the brain, acquiring new abilities and experiences, thus he separated development into stages (as cited in Santrock, 2008). Piaget developed four stages the sensori-motor stage (0-2 years) where the infant is trying to make sense of the world, and acquires the development of object permanence (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). The pre-operational stage (2-7 years) where language development, animism, egocentrism and the use of symbols hallmark this stage (Shaffer &Kipp, 2007). The concrete operational stage (7-11 years) where children start classifying objects and are able to conserve and think logically about objects and events (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). And the formal operational stage (11 years and beyond) where children develop hypothetico-deductive reasoning and imaginary audience and believe in the uniqueness of oneself and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). On the other hand, Vygotsky developed his sociocultural theory indicating that cognitive development is promoted in a Ã¢â¬Å"socioculturalÃ¢â¬ context which influences the form it takes (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). Furthermore, Vygotsky indicated that many of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s most important cognitive functions develop from social interactions with parents, teachers and other more competent associates. Moreover, Vygotsky elaborated his Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) where the child is the learner and can manage independently and the difference between what the children can learn with guidance of a more skilled and competent partner and expect further cognitive growth, by internalising the help of the skilled partner (Shaffer & Kipp, 2007). Starting on the debate and trying to shed light upon the different approaches on development from Piaget and Vygotsky, the differences on egocentric speech and language will be analyzed. Vygotsky in one of his main books published in 1934 Ã¢â¬Å"Thought and LanguageÃ¢â¬ wrote about Piaget Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology owes a great deal to Jean Piaget. It is not an exaggeration to say that he revolutionised the study of child language and thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Vygotsky, 1962, p.9). Though, even if he exalted Piaget he differed his approach around the concepts of egocentric speech and egocentrism. In line with Vygotsky (1962, p. 14-15), the outcome of the observations of Piaget led him to the conclusion that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s speech can be divided only in two distinct entities, the egocentric speech and socialized speech. The difference between them is due to their functions, during egocentric speech the child talks only about him having no interest in other people and expecting no answers, whereas socialized speech attempts exchanges with other people. According to Vygotsky, the conclusions of Piaget showed that the majority of preschool children talk is egocentric, though when the child reaches school age, egocentric speech declines (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 16).Vygotsky differed his view from Piaget on egocentric speech believing that it has a specific function and this function other than its communicative role, it also serves as a thinking tool and as a tool to solve problems (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 18). Piaget and Vygotsky seem to agree that inner speech develops from egocentric speech which leads to logical thinking, though Vygotsky highlighted language as an apparatus of thought other than another way of expression. On the other hand, Piaget awarded to language a less significant role than Vygotsky toward the development of thought (Piaget, 1970). Moreover, Vygotsky praised the use of language and egocentric speech as thinking tools which promote development, but Piaget disagrees indicating that Vygotsky could not understand that egocentrism could be a main obstacle for learning, concluding that language can also reduce learning and development (Piaget, 1962). Another main issue where Vygotsky and Piaget collide is the role of the social and the role of the individual in learning. Piaget indicates that teaching is divided in two sides, the one is the rising individual, and the other side consists of social, intellectual, and moral values that the educator attempts to transmit (Piaget, 1969). PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s aim was to make children capture the solution of the problem on their own strength, self-regulation, and their own experiences rather than receiving help from any rules or from a more skilled individual (Piaget, 1969). Thus, Piaget points out that learning is not social, and that the individual on his own entirely captures the surrounding knowledge. On the contrary, Vygotsky who belongs to the activity theory indicates that learning is an active process from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, and that the child can duplicate culturally accumulated knowledge with assistance from social support (Vygotsky, 1962). The outstanding difference in learning is that Piaget perceives the individual as the onset of learning and also children can learn through repetitive interaction and experience with the environment, moreover the egocentric speech serves as a tool for logical thinking, though it can also intricate the meaning (Piaget, 1969). On the other hand, Vygotsky is emphasising more that an individual (child) cannot produce knowledge and learn without the verbal interaction and activity of other probably more skilled individuals (Vygotsky, 1962). Thus, Piaget seems to combine and emphasise on both the individual side and the social side, whereas Vygotsky emphasises more on one side, the social side. Additionally, Vygotsky proposes that knowledge arrives from the outside, on the contrary though Piaget points out that learning lies on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s innate capability. Piaget was mainly affected from his biological roots which influenced his approach on human development, and Vygotsky was influenced by the Marxist tradition forming his own ideas about human development and that is where the foundational difference lies on these two approaches on the essence of humanness (Newman & Holzman, 1993). On the contrary to Piaget who has strongly settled in a biological worldview and asserts human development in the adaptation to the environment, Vygotsky emphasizes on the centrality of transformative collaborative practices by individuals who do not adapt to their environment but as a whole transform it, and through this transformation also alter themselves and acquire their own status and essence (Newman & Holzman, 1993). For Piaget what promotes cognitive growth is disequilibration, a revolution made from the connection of two elemental processes. Concurrences with the world were either adapted, assimilated to anterior existing mental functions, or prevailing functions were altered to accommodate them. According to Piaget, there is this double connection between assimilation and accommodation highlighting that this double connection leads to cognitive growth, but none of these two functions can serve on its own the purpose of cognitive growth (Bruner, 1990). On the other hand, Vygotsky did not attribute to the mind this logical calculus. For Vygotsky, the mind is determined to consist of processes for attributing experience with meaning. Vygotsky indicated that meaning does not entirely depend upon language but also on the ability to apprehend the cultural context where language is used (Bruner, 1990). Vygotsky believed that cognitive growth would be promoted by acquiring essential order culturally allocated symbolic structures, with each of these symbolic structures having the ability to blend or switch pre-existing knowledge (Bruner, 1990). Additionally, these essential orders are manufactured by culture and cognitive growth is not formed by the biological perspective unless they are aided by language and culture which rely upon endured social interactions. Piaget was mainly concerned with the balanced order of mental development, whereas Vygotsky was merely concerned with how other more skilled individuals or the society implement the cultural patterning that constructs the process of cognitive growth and makes development achievable. According to VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s general genetic law of cultural development any function the childe displays during his cultural development will appear two times. Firstly, it will appear in the social stage and then on the psychological stage. For Vygotsky, the unit of analysis is the individual engaging in social activities rather than psychological activity of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, arguing with PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s position that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development must precede learning, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s position was that the development process lies behind the learning process. These two major theorists seem to disagree ontologically about learning due to the fact that Piaget is a constructionist and Vygotsky belongs to the activity theory. Ontologically constructivism indicates that there is no reality that exists outside of human thinking, whereas the activity theory points out that for everything that exists it does include physical characteristics. Furthermore, constructivism indicates that knowledge and thinking are inextricably on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s brains and they just construct from their personal experiences. On the contrary, the activity theory indicates that knowledge is formed from a social negotiation involving people. Another issue which differs VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach from PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s is that the Piagetian theory does not provoke that children perform tasks that are far away from their cognitive capabilities. The teacher simply prepares the environment for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental level of mental operations, concluding that the child is limited by its own developmental stage. On the other hand, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s zone of proximal development welcomes the child to attempt beyond its potential mental capabilities. Both theorists have contributed with their approaches of human development. The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and the Russian Lev Vygotsky consequently influenced from their environments and cultures and also from their beliefs in constructivism and the activity theory formed their approaches on human development were in some parts seem to agree, but have major differences between them. Most critiques reflecting on these two approaches seem to weigh more on Piaget due to the fact that several developmental tasks he applied on children especially in the pre-operational stage are not clearly stated and it seemed that Piaget often underestimated childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capabilities. Piaget claimed that pre-operational children cannot decentre on the Ã¢â¬Ëthree mountain taskÃ¢â¬â¢ though new studies have shown that by altering the objects with something more familiar, children were able to decentre. Also in some other Piagetian tasks children performed better than expected by Piaget. And that has revealed that VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to the socio-cultural aspect seems more appropriate than PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s constructivist approach. REFERENCE LIST: Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan Development (4th. Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Lerman, S. (1996). Ã¢â¬ËIntersubjectivity in Mathematics Learning: A Challenge to the Radical Constructivist Paradigm?Ã¢â¬â¢ Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Vol. 27 2, pp.211-223. Newman, F., & Holzman, L. (1993). Lev Vygotsky: Revolutionary Scientist. London: Routledge. Piaget, J. (1962). Comments on VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s critical remarks concerning Ã¢â¬ËThe Language and Thought of the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËJudgement and Reasoning in the ChildÃ¢â¬â¢. Cambridge: Massachusetts, The M.I.T. Piaget, J. (1969). Psykologi og paedagogik Copenhagen: Hans Reitzell. Piaget, J. (1970). Genetic Epistemology. New York: Columbia University. Santrock, J., W. (2008). A topical approach to life-span development (4th Edition). New York City: McGraw- Hill. Shaffer, D., R., & Kipp, K. (2007). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence (7th Edition). Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Vygotsky, L., S. (1962). Thought and Language Cambridge: Massachusetts, The M.I.T. View as multi-pages
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Success of IKEA The secret of success of IKEA is the IKEA-feeling, the culture. The company has Swedish origins, and its no accident that the IKEA logo is blue and yellow. The IKEA concept, like its founder, was born in SmÃ ¥land. The people are famous for working hard, living on slender means and using their heads to make the best possible use of the limited resources they have. Like the founder Ingvar Kamprad said Ã¢â¬Å¾wasting resources is a mortal sinÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"This characterizes the whole company itself. This way of doing things is at the heart of the IKEA approach to keeping prices low. But quality is not compromised for the sake of cost. Swedenhas an international reputation for safety and quality you can rely on, and IKEA retailers take prideÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It sells a lifestyle; it has the power of taste-forming. The Swedish IKEA thought, that the winning of the American market will be advantageous in the competition. But this decision didnÃ¢â¬â¢t in volve an easy changing, because we mentioned IKEA has very standardised product range, but the American customers have different lifestyle, tastes and needs. So they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept these traditional products. The IKEA knew, it has one choice to winning this market, and this is the adaptation. So IKEA has redesigned approximately fifth of its product range. For example the American lifestyle needs far bigger products: bigger glasses, bigger kitchen cupboard. The American consumers missed the matching bedroom suites too. It was very important to adapt to the American culture too. A few examples: So the IKEA in America offer more typical American foods and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide very much special Swedish foods. The homepage shows typical American people with rotundity. People hate waiting in lines, IKEA must have been changed the store layout then they can accommodated a new cash registers. Interesting, that this expansion affected Europe. More and more products were added to the European product range too. The main IKEA concept is Ã¢â¬Å¾young people of all agesÃ¢â¬ means that the company lures customers of all ages from the very young to the elders as well, who think and like to live their lives as young people, who have imagination,Show MoreRelatedSuccess of Ikea1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat factors account for the success of IKEA? IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s Success can be attributed to many factors, but can be classified into two broad categories: product differentiation and cost leadership. Product Differentiation IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s simple yet elegant yet elegant Scandanavian designs reflect solid consumer awareness, as its designs resonated well with the consumer. Cost Leadership In our opinion, IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s cost leadership was the strongest contributor to its success. 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