Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Writer's choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 13

Writer's choice - Essay Example Being a technology genius, it is obvious that he would incorporate technology in his proposed solutions. In fact, a large part of this talk revolves around the potential that technology has in responding to such outbreaks. Although Bill Gates uses all the rhetorical strategies of pathos, logos, and ethos, his strength stands out in using the strategy of logos. With all the experience that he has at the top level management, it should surprise no one that Bill Gates possesses such incredibly perfect oral skills. In particular, he articulates his speech in a way that influences the audience’s perception about him. The strategy of ethos is evidently common in his talk. To begin with, he has a very good past record in philanthropy and especially in the field of healthcare. Someone can literally see that the audience agrees with his points because they trust that he knows better. In addition, the audience is eager to hear from him and erupt in uproar once he appears. This behavior says a lot about Bill Gates credentials among the average citizens. On the other hand, his extrinsic ethos is not too strong at the initial stage because many people know that he has never practiced in the health care sector. For example, Bill Gates knows very little about the plight of medical practitioners that are faced with the task of combating Ebola. The audience, perhaps think that he cannot speak about the issues of Ebola and that his involvement is only limited to the donations that he makes. However, as he starts to speak, his extrinsic grows from level to level owing to his knowledge on issues to do with health care. The audience gains trust and confidence in the speaker and shift their sitting patterns to become more attentive (Haaften, pp. 67). Every speaker is fully aware of the importance of using pathos strategy in appealing to the audience’s sense of identity and emotions (Gibson, pp. 72). Bill Gates is

Monday, October 28, 2019

Calculating the Young Modulus of Constanton Essay Example for Free

Calculating the Young Modulus of Constanton Essay Introduction Constanton is a copper-nickel alloy mainly used in the for its electrical resistance properties. It has a high resistance which is constant over a wide range of temperatures. I am going to find out the Youngs modulus of this wire and observe its behaviour. Apparatus * Constanton Wire * G-Clamp x2 * Pulley * Hanging weights * Ruler * Micrometer * Small marker flag * Wooden end blocks * Sponge Blocks Underlying Theory When a sample is deformed by a force, the deformation is proportional to the magnitude of the force. This is shown by Hookes Law where: Force is equal to a stiffness constant (k) times the extension (e).The force is proportional to the extension. For a sample we can also calculate stress and strain: Where stress is equal to force (F) divided by area (A) and strain is equal to extension (e) divided by original length (l). When you plot these on a Stress-strain graph it proves Hookes law when it is straight line but as soon as the graph curves, the sample is showing plastic deformation as it is past the elastic limit. Using this graph we can work out the Youngs Modulus of a sample which is: This is also measured in Nm-2 or Pascals (Pa). It can also be calculated by working out the gradient on the stress-strain graph. When a wire obeys Hookes Law it deforms elastically. This means that when the load is removed, the wire returns back to its initial length. The atoms in the wire move small distances from their equilibrium positions but then return. After the elastic limit the wire starts to deform plastically. The atoms move within the structure so they cannot return when the load is removed. Measurements Throughout the experiment these measurements will need to be taken and observed: * Stress Force and surface area * Strain Initial length and the extension * Youngs modulus * Percentage error error of each piece of equipment * Hookes law (F=ke) Method To measure the Youngs modulus of constanton I will: 1) Set up the equipment as shown. 2) Choose a suitable section of wire from the real that doesnt appear bent, twisted or deformed. Measure the diameter of the wire with a micrometer before attaching it to the weights. 3) Attach a marker flag so the extension can be measured. 4) Start the experiment by measuring the initial length of wire and adding the 100g weights and measuring the new length each time. 5) Record your results in a table and plot a stress-strain graph using these results. Weight (g) Mass (N) Length (mm) Stress (Nm-2/Pa) Strain 6) Repeat the experiment three times or until you get a set of similar results. Results Experiment 1 In the first attempt at calculating the youngs modulus of constanton i used 0.44mm diameter wire with an initial length of 500mm. I measured both in millimetres because this would avoid converting units when calculating the strain of the wire (e/l). The wire only extended by 1mm when 1700g were added to it so I abandoned the experiment and changed my method slightly to get more extension for mass. Experiment 2 I changed the diameter of wire used to 0.23mm which is almost half the thickness than before. By using thinner wire we should see more extension for the amount of weight added so we can measure it with a ruler more easily. The initial length of wire was also 500mm. When i carried out the experiment the wire proved to be too thin because as only 500g was added the wire started to show rapid plastic deformation and continued to extend by roughly 6% (30mm) of its original length before the wire broke. Experiment 3 I changed the diameter again so I could record more conclusive results. I used a diameter of wire in between the diameters of the first two experiment (0.31mm) and an initial length of 500mm. I still couldnt record too accurate results as the wire didnt extend enough so I could only plot three points on a graph before it showed plastic behaviour. Further experimental changes were needed. Experiment 4 This time I changed the initial length of wire used to 800mm from 500mm. This would amplify the extension so I could measure it with the ruler because the rate of extension would increase and also the amount of extension would increase. By increasing the initial length of wire it would also decrease the percentage error in the measurement of the wire with the ruler. The percentage error goes from 0.1% to 0.063%. Experiment 5 This was a repeat to check the accuracy of experiment 4. In this experiment i encountered a few problems. The knot holding the weight hangers on kept slipping and the results found did not match the pervious pattern. Experiment 6 This was my third repeat of experiment 4. This gave me a fairly similar set of results to experiment 4. Due to time restrictions, no more experiments could be carried out to do a third repeat. Calculations * Using the diameter to work out the surface area. Let x = diameter X 10-3 = to change from millimetres to metres 2 = to change diameter into radius Then substitute it into the formula for the area of a circle. * Change grams into Newtons for force. Which is equivalent to 10 * Changing Pascals (Pa) into Megapascals (MPa) * Working out gradient to find the Youngs Modulus. Graphs To plot the graphs i only plotted points where the wire extended by a millimetre because the wire was extending between those points but I could not take sensitive enough measurements with a ruler. To plot the graphs i also changed Stress from Pascals (Pa) to Megapascals (MPa) to make it easier to plot on the graph. I also used the graphs to work out the Youngs Modulus of the Constanton by finding the gradient of the graph before it reached the elastic limit. Inaccuracies Here are some factors that may have caused some inaccuracies in my measurements: * The wire may contain impurities that change the way the wire behaves. This cannot be helped. * By attaching a pointer you can affect the sample by restricting the way it behaves. To avoid causing too many inaccuracies use as thin a pointer as possible so there is as little as possible touching the sample. * The pulley wheel may cause friction but this is the most sensible way of converting horizontal movement into vertical. * There also may be bends or variation in cross sectional area in the wire. To minimise the risk of this, dont use the first few metres of wire until you find a section that looks roughly undamaged. Percentage Errors The main source of percentage error is in the measurement of the diameter taken by the micrometer even though the micrometer is accurate to 0.005mm and the ruler is only accurate to 0.5mm. In experiments 4, 5, and 6: % error of diameter = [ 0.005 / 0.31] x 100 = 1.6% % error of length = [ 0.5 / 800 ] x 100 = 0.06% Other sources of percentage error are: Diameter of the wire which is an example of uncertainty in the measurements. Actual mass of the weights which is an example of systematic error. Conclusion Using experiments 4 and 6 I was able to work out my youngs modulus of Constanton by finding the gradient of the initial straight part of my graph. Experiment 4 = 280GPa Experiment 6 = 240GPa The real value of the youngs modulus is 162GPa so I am out by approximately a factor of two. This is not too far away from the true value considering the huge uncertainties involved with my measurement technique. To improve my accuracy I would either have to improve my measurement techniques or change my method completely. In conclusion, the method was affective for demonstrating the affects of Hookes law but not for measuring accurately the youngs modulus of constanton. Modifications in the Method * Attaching the pointer to the pulley stops the pointer coming into contact with the sample of wire which could obstruct deformation but if the wire extends more than the pulley can measure then the experiment will not work. * Illuminate the pointer to produce a magnified shadow of the movement. This makes it easier to see movement and allows for more accurate measurement however you need to calculate and calibrate magnification. * Use wire that isnt wound round a real because it distorted the start point of my curve. A typical youngs modulus curve starts at the origin but mine doesnt because first few hundred grams was used to apply tension to the wire to bend out the curves.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Custom Written Term Papers: Othello’s Feminine Roles :: Othello essays

Othello’s Feminine Roles  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚   The audience finds within the Shakespearean tragic drama Othello several female characters who figure into the plot of the play. Their roles are varied and their lives end tragically.    Alvin Kernan’s â€Å"Othello: an Introduction† explains Desdemona’s role as a model of faith and chastity for the protagonist who converts to a belief in her after her death:    His willingness to speak of what he has done – in contrast to Iago’s sullen silence – is a willingness to recognize the meaning of Desdemona’s faith and chastity, to acknowledge that innocence and love do exist, and that therefore The City can stand, though his life is required to validate the truth and justice on which it is built. (81)    In the volume Shakespeare and Tragedy John Bayley explains the roles of the two main women characters in the play:    Even the risk of alienating the onlooker from the tragic action produces a corresponding gain: that action and behaviour remain in the play perennially controversial, and the focus of sexual and social awareness sharp and clear. In a production today, the implications of this are usually more interesting than the actual intrigue can be, and a lot of weight is usually put on Emilia’s role as a figure of common sense and common humanity, correcting the romantic excesses of the lovers. [. . .] But no figure in these three tragedies has such a symbolically positional status. Besides, Emilia, for all her virtues, has a stupidity and lack of imagination comparable in its own way to that of her husband; while her views on the sex war, from the feminine angle, are as pungent as his. Certainly the role of women is important, but it is Desdemona alone who, because of her love, can remain unconscious of the tragedy/comedy element, as she does of the polarity between sex and love. (218)    At the outset of the play Iago persuades the rejected suitor of Desdemona, Roderigo, to accompany him to the home of Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, in the middle of the night. Once there the two awaken the senator with loud shouts about his daughter’s elopement with Othello. This is the initial reference to the role of women in the play – the role of wife. In response to the noise and Iago’s vulgar descriptions of Desdemona’s involvement with the general, Brabantio arises from bed.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Explain why the NEP was unpopular with many Communists

Many Communists were devoted to fulfilling Mar's Communist Manifesto and were upset by the NAP going against it. These were mainly the far leftists who openly protested against it as the farer right members saw that keeping the NAP for a longer time would help the revolution by being a â€Å"half way house† between Communism and Capitalism. Many Communists found it difficult to speak out against Lenin as he was almost God like amongst them and he saw the NAP as a short term solution.Not only did the private ownership of business just upset Communists because it went against their ideology, it also meant that people who profited from their private businesses would be earning more than others which would lead to class divisions in society. The Communists wanted to break down all class barriers so that everyone would be equal. Not only this, class divisions could lead to political divisions, jeopardizing the Communist rule. Political divisions can't happen in a Communist state.It just can't happen. The class divisions will be even more pronounced as unemployment is very high meaning living standards are dropping for some. Firstly, there shouldn't be any unemployment in a Communist state because everyone is meant to have a place in society that is equal to everyone else. Secondly, dropping living standards turned people against the Communists. You're not going to support a government when you're worse off under them than you were before.Many Communists blame the NAP for the peasants' resentment of the overspent; although it probably was more to do with the fact the Communists were forcing a revolution to happen in a country that wasn't ready. Privately owned businesses in many cases were doing better than state owned ones which reflected badly on the government. They were doing better because they would benefit personally from their own hard work and so had more motivation to work well whereas workers in the State businesses didn't have that incentive.Also, state owned businesses were struggling to each full productivity because of outdated machinery which resulted in high production costs of consumer goods and so prices were high. This was terrible for the economy and led to peasants withholding food or purposely growing less as it profited them more as they could sell it for more. This angered Communists as they were trying to increase grain production for their industrialization plans. The NAP was not producing the capital the state required to industrialist.Even though they owned all the heavy production nines, they were losing out on the money made by the privately owned businesses plus the money from the peasants agriculture (which is going to pay for the industrialization of the LESSER) is going down thanks to them growing less or withholding more food! The NAP simply didn't meet the needs of the USSR and the Communists said the USSR needed industrialist's. So even though the NAP encouraged initiative amongst peasants and they l oved being able to sell their grain on open markets, the Communists didn't see this as enough of a gain and so opposed the NAP.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Excel Hygiene

Excel Hygiene is a new start-up enterprise, specialized in the management and disposal of bio-medical waste. The company has been established by a team of biotechnologists with core technical competence in the degradation of organic material using microbes especially naturally occurring bacteria. All health care facilities and institutions need to manage their medical wastes, which include body parts, metallic and plastic disposable parts and aids, as well as waste of both organic and inorganic origins.Large hospitals have incineration and compacting facilities of their own, but clinics and small nursing homes lack economies of scale to operate their own waste management facilities. Though bio-medical waste management and disposal is the intended core of the enterprise, medical institutions expect comprehensive hygiene services comprising removal of pathogenic loads, rodent, crawler, and vector control as well. The new company will therefore have to provide these ancillary services a s well.Personnel training and efficient logistics are the keys to success in this business. Hospitals and clinics will have no hesitation in terminating contracts if waste if not removed in time, or if their infections rates soar. Waste must be compacted and incinerated only in designated areas, and must be collated at these sites before degradation is advanced. Therefore the new company has decided to limit its operations to an area of about one thousand square kilometers.The present market for hygiene services in this area has been estimated to be just about $50 million, but a three fold increase is expected in the next 5 years, as environmental consciousness spreads. Biotechnology is a relatively new field and the number of players is limited in this segment. The business offers superior growth and profit potentials for new start up companies . This kind of enterprise has high social values as well.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Magazine

The origins of the twentieth-century magazine lie in the extensive economic and social changes of the latter portion of the preceding century. The result was the emergence of the newly commercialized form of national periodical which, for the ensuing fifty years, served as the dominant medium of popular culture. And while the centrality of magazines as shapers and reflectors of the nation's popular discourse began to diminish at mid-century, the form itself continued to prosper as new, more specialized types of magazines arose to serve the specific informational needs of more narrowly defined audiences. This progress of the American magazine through the twentieth century might, for the purposes of historical analysis, be divided into four major eras: The Magazine's Triumph as a Commercial Enterprise (19001920), The Golden Age of Mass Magazines (19201960), The Rise of the Specialized Magazine (19601990), Magazines as New Media (1990present). This essay will attempt to chart the changing character of magazines in America during the twentieth century, as well as the forces, individual and institutional, which shaped them. The first twenty years of the twentieth century saw the emergence of modern magazine publishing. Inherent in this triumph of the magazine as a large-scale commercial enterprise was the widespread validation of the advertising-based model of magazine publishing developed during the 1890s. The rise of magazines as a national media, however, was driven by a number of broader economic and societal factors which gathered increasing force throughout the last half of the nineteenth century. Three of the more important included the success of the Industrial Revolution and the attendant urbanization of the nation, the rise of public education and the subsequent spread of literacy, and the emergence of a national consumer market. More specific technological and comm... Free Essays on Magazine Free Essays on Magazine The origins of the twentieth-century magazine lie in the extensive economic and social changes of the latter portion of the preceding century. The result was the emergence of the newly commercialized form of national periodical which, for the ensuing fifty years, served as the dominant medium of popular culture. And while the centrality of magazines as shapers and reflectors of the nation's popular discourse began to diminish at mid-century, the form itself continued to prosper as new, more specialized types of magazines arose to serve the specific informational needs of more narrowly defined audiences. This progress of the American magazine through the twentieth century might, for the purposes of historical analysis, be divided into four major eras: The Magazine's Triumph as a Commercial Enterprise (19001920), The Golden Age of Mass Magazines (19201960), The Rise of the Specialized Magazine (19601990), Magazines as New Media (1990present). This essay will attempt to chart the changing character of magazines in America during the twentieth century, as well as the forces, individual and institutional, which shaped them. The first twenty years of the twentieth century saw the emergence of modern magazine publishing. Inherent in this triumph of the magazine as a large-scale commercial enterprise was the widespread validation of the advertising-based model of magazine publishing developed during the 1890s. The rise of magazines as a national media, however, was driven by a number of broader economic and societal factors which gathered increasing force throughout the last half of the nineteenth century. Three of the more important included the success of the Industrial Revolution and the attendant urbanization of the nation, the rise of public education and the subsequent spread of literacy, and the emergence of a national consumer market. More specific technological and comm...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Pink FLoyd essays

Pink FLoyd essays Music in the 20th century is something that has evolved from early days of jazz and blues music, to Rap, Rs name was arrived at after blues musicians Floyd Council and Pink Anderson. However, this was not the first of the names given to the band. Sigma6 was the first on a list of many names to come for the band. The band had many names at different times such as, The Screaming Abdabs, T-Set, The Meggadeaths, and The Architectural Abdabs, until Syd came up with the name The Pink Floyd Sound, inspired by two jazz artists Pink Anderson, and Floyd Council ( The band had roots in the early 1960s in Cambridge, England where future rock legends Syd Barrett and David Gilmour grew up. The band would generally gather at Barretts house to play in his lavish home, using makeshift instruments to play the tunes of current rock stars; that is up until member Roger Waters blew his college grant money on his first guitar (Povey 8). Now as to the use of the name Pink Floyd, there is much to wonder. Contrary to popular belief, the name did not come from a hallucination Syd Barrett had while using LSD. In his record collection he possessed two records, one by Pink Anderson, master of ragtime, blues and folk, and the other by bluesman Floyd Council, through which he simply combined first and last names to come up with a band name. Other options came up such as Anderson Council, but the group opted for another name (Povey 14). Pink Floyd was born. Getting back to the origin of the groups members is a lengthy issue. Each member had been in other bands before comi...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Writing Sentences for Beginners

Writing Sentences for Beginners Here are four types of sentences to begin writing in English. Follow the example in each type of sentence. Learn these symbols to understand each type of sentence. These symbols represent parts of speech in English. Parts of speech are the different types of words in English. Key to Symbols S subject   Subjects include I / you / he / she / it / we / they and names of people: Mark, Mary, Tom, etc. or types of people: children, students, parents, teachers, etc. V verb   Simple sentences use the verb ‘be’ such as: I am a teacher. / They are funny. Verbs also tell us what we do:   play / eat / drive etc. or what we think: believe / hope / want etc. N noun   Nouns are objects such as books, chair, picture, computer, etc.  Nouns have singular and plural forms:  book - books, child - children, car - cars, etc. Adj   Adjective Adjectives tell how someone or something is. For example:  big, small, tall, interesting, etc.   Prep P   Prepositional phrase Prepositional phrases tell us where someone or something is. Prepositional phrases are often three words and begin with a preposition: For example:  in the house, at the store, on the wall, etc. ()   Parentheses If you see something in parentheses () you can use the type of word, or leave it out. Start off Easy: Sentences with Nouns Here is the first type of easy sentence. Use the verb to be. If you have one object, use a or an before the object. If you have more than one object, dont use a or an. S be (a) N I am a teacher.She is a student.  They are boys.We are workers. Exercise: Five Sentences with Nouns On a piece of paper write five sentences using  nouns. Next Step: Sentences with Adjectives The next type of sentence uses an adjective to describe the subject of a sentence. Do not use a or an when the sentence ends in an adjective. Do not change the form of the adjective if the subject is plural or singular. S be Adj Tim is tall.They are rich.This is easy.We are happy. Exercise: Five Sentences with Adjectives Use adjectives to write five sentences.   Combine: Sentences with Adjectives   Nouns Next, combine the two types of sentences. Place the adjective before the noun it modifies. Use a or an with singular objects, or nothing with plural objects. S be (a, an) Adj N He is a happy man.They are funny students.Mary is a sad girl.Peter is a good father. Exercise: Five Sentences with Adjectives Nouns Use adjectives nouns to write five sentences.   Tell us Where: Add Prepositional Phrases to Your Sentences The next step is to add short prepositional phrases to tell us where someone or something is. Use a or an or use the  before a noun or adjective noun if the object is singular and specific. The is used when something specific is understood by the person writing and the person reading the sentence. Notice that some sentences are written with adjectives and nouns, and others without. S be (a, an, the) (adj) (N) Prep P Tom is in the room.Mary is the woman at the door.There is a book on the table.There are flowers in the vase. Exercise: Five Sentences with Prepositional Phrases Use prepositional phrases to write five sentences.   Start Using Other Verbs Finally, use other verbs than be to express what happens or what people think. S V   (a, an, the) (adj) (N) (Prep P) Peter plays the piano in the living room.The teacher writes sentences on the board.We eat lunch in the kitchen.They buy food at the supermarket. Exercise: Five Sentences with Prepositional Phrases Use other verbs to write five sentences.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Functions of Management Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Functions of Management Paper - Essay Example mpany and they use to give example of Southwest Airlines where right application of human resource pool helped the airlines to achieve business excellence (Pride, Hughes, & Kapoor, p.p. 159-160). Business management is a broad term used by management researchers to define various elements of business operation. Not only has private sector given importance on business managing but also other types of organizations (NGOs, public sectors) give importance on the subject. Business management is important counterbalance any types of organizational complexity or inconveniences (Spicer, 1997, p. 92). Planning is integrated part of management system while many management researchers has indicated planning is the first step of management. Planning is the systematic framework of setting business objective for the organization and designing strategy map to achieve the objective. Organizations establish a mission statement (like Google’s mission statement is to organize information for people and making an easy online platform to access the information for people) is the initial phase of planning process. Companies allocate resources in accordance the mission statement while the process is known as strategic planning. Suppose my organization is Finnish telecommunication giant Nokia. Tagline of the company is connecting people. The company needs to establish business objective of expanding distribution and regain market position within next five years. New product development and retail chain expansion are two major strategic plans in order to compete with Apple and Samsung. Management creates the basic design of work pattern in the organizing phase by defining organizational communication level (vertical or horizontal) for employees. In this phase management assign work responsibility to certain groups or individual workers. Defining who the target customers plays important role in this phase since knowing the needs of target customer’s helps employees to provide

Friday, October 18, 2019

Scots Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Scots Law - Essay Example When the company delegated a duty to Fergus, which was an expansion program, it did not examine that Fergus would have undergone various challenges. In addition, the company did not consider the potential benefits that would have come out of each customer. According to the tenements act 2004, the company should always have the capacity to cater for relevant costs (Scotland 2004, p.9). These are costs that result out of reasonable transactions or dealings between the company and a second party. This is irrespective of whether the costs were catered for in the initial budget. The first argument is that, as a sales person, Fergus might have been marketing Ikant. This exists in the view that the company bears social responsibility over his customers and the general society. Marketing and advertisement are factors that have been proven to impact immensely over a company’s revenues and expansion. This, thus, makes the extra costs that Fergus incurred probable in the company’s rational planning. Another reason for the extra costs might have been a possible unwillingness by customers to engage in a meaningful interaction with Fergus. This would have necessitated that he uses the meals as a basis for the interaction. In concluding this, if the company incurred expenses, in the period stipulated, then it is bound to pay for the costs. In addition, the company would be held liable for payment if the court regards the nature of relationship between the company and Fergus. Fergus is a supervisor in Ikant and has been appointed temporarily to aid the company in enlarging its business. In this capacity, he performs the functions on behalf of the directors. This is called the law of agency. He is engaged in an employment bond with the company. He is, thus, said to have acted in good intentions for the company. Even, if he had wrong intentions, it would be difficult to prove that he had wrong intent. Furthermore, the work given by the company to Fergus does not am ount to delegation. It is appropriately described as an assignment. The directors did not, therefore, describe Fergus’s role aptly. According to the quantum meruit rule, the company is entitled to pay on the basis that the restaurant has already performed its role (Scottish law commission 2000). Advising Ikant on problem B In our second problem, a complexity arises between the directors and Fergus concerning the Scottish contract law. It is noted that Fergus normally travels to promote Ikant’s products and receive orders. The court can, therefore, easily establish that Fergus has been consistently undertaking this duty for some time. Fergus, consequently, engages the company in a form of contract. Fergus, in this capacity, is deemed able to represent the company in a valid contract. According to the Contract Act of third Parties of 1999, this is recognizable legally (Ashton 2003, p.29). The company law recognizes that companies should still have physical representation despite the arbitrary nature of the board of directors. If the court establishes that Fergus acted in good faith, then the company is bound to the contract. However, according the delegation rule, the directors shall still be responsible for a breach of contract since Fergus is conducting a role that they ought to perform. In addition, company will gain rescission, if only it was stated in the contract. The contract, in this case, must comply with

Loyality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Loyality - Essay Example Most of us often go through life oblivious of what goes on in other states enjoying the bliss of life. We depend on the media to give us a picture of what life is like, despite the fact that in most cases it often fails to depict the real picture. We make so many assumptions without even the least bit of information that can easily help us base our judgments. Racism and economic inequality is a reality that has been in the society for years, despite the fact that most people fail to acknowledge it. All it takes is a simple look around us to finally see the reality of what exists. Most people base their judgments on what they hear and rarely ever do so based on their experience. In her essay, she talks about the â€Å"white trash† she comes across in Mexico. In spite of the fact that she was an American herself, she felt like she was better than them simply because they acted differently than her. She tries to call the reader’s attention to things so inherent that they have become imperceptible to us, such as our assumptions on race. She states â€Å"In the United States, it is very easy for me to forget that the people around me are my people. It is easy, with all our divisions, to think of myself as an outsider in my own country.† (Biss, 93). Although in her country she could easily separate herself from others and act like she was better than others, while in Mexico she finally got to see herself from other people’s perspective. She used to pride herself in the fact that she was better simply because she was a well refined woman from a good background with good education. The US has always been regarded as a land that holds better promises which is why most immigrants are so quick to try and sneak in hoping to find a better life than what they have left behind. To most people’s surprise, life is not any better

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Cardiac Disease among African American Male, Age 30 to 50 Essay

Cardiac Disease among African American Male, Age 30 to 50 - Essay Example The objective of the paper is to identify and diagnosis the problem in respect of cardiac disease among the African American males between the ages of 30 to 50. The identification is done by developing a health promotion plan within the target group. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has greatly influenced the objective to prevent the heart disease and to promote awareness among the people. The literature review done in the paper would enable depicting the reason behind a high rate of cardiac disease among the African American males and females having the highest percentage of mortality rate than the other gender and race. It also depicts the current nursing interventions and the successful and unsuccessful interventions of the heart disease. A short-term objective has been shown to determine the process of conducting awareness and identifying the causes of heart disease that will provide knowledge and promote the awareness among the public about the heart disea se. Part I: Nursing Process: Community Diagnosis Literature Review Healthy People: 2020 ‘Healthy People’ is a designed structure that promotes awareness among the people of the United States regarding health and avoidance of disease with a set of goals, as well as objectives with a 10-year target. The goals of ‘Healthy People’ are to prevent repeated heart attacks and to improve the health of the people through awareness, detection and treatment. Cardiac disease is a major factor leading to death among the people in the U.S. African American males of the ages of 30-50 years are the main victims of cardiac disease. ‘Healthy People’ is a program of the Department of Health and Human Services of the U.S. that provides an idea of science-based objectives to measure and to keep track of the health issues in a particular population. ‘Healthy People’ serves as the institution for activities, such as prevention, as well as wellness among t he people in different sectors of National Government. It is also used as a model to measure health of people at state, as well as at local levels (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Goals of Healthy People: 2020 ‘Healthy People’ program has certain specific comprehensive goals, such as aiming high quality lives for people that is prevented from disease, injury, as well as untimely death.  

Business Integration topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Business Integration topic - Essay Example During this period, the company opened 13 stores. (JB Hi Fi, Annual Report – 2007) The strategies followed by JB Hi Fi will be discussed in light of recommendations for further improvement and growth in this paper. These strategies will be discussed in terms of the phases put forward in the book by Kotter titled Leading Change, as well as theories by various other scholars like Taylor, Porter and others. In the book Leading Change, Kotter has used the word urgency to describe the first phase so as to get a head start into the process of transformation. This can be seen in JB Hi Fi’s foray into the market of technology with the popularity of its â€Å"Big Box†. This has to do with taking stock of competitive and market realities with a focus on crises and opportunities. (Kotter, 1996) This has been paralleled in Organizational Behavior and Management through a focus on competitive advantage which can be described as follows: (Ivancevich et al, 2004) This brings us to a discussion on the technicalities of the model proposed by Porter. Porters Five Forces model provides suggested points under each main heading. When taken into consideration individually, each of these gives rise to the development of a broad and sophisticated analysis of competitive position. This may further be used during the creation of a strategy, plans, or even where making investment decisions about a business or organization is concerned. These five competitive forces determine industry profitability and attractiveness apart from being responsible for shaping the prices that firms can charge, the costs they have to bear, and the required investments to engage in industry level competition. We are concerned with the fact that Porter’s essentially ahistorical approach cannot provide a full account of either a nation’s competitive advantage and corporate strategies or the growth and development of industrial

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Cardiac Disease among African American Male, Age 30 to 50 Essay

Cardiac Disease among African American Male, Age 30 to 50 - Essay Example The objective of the paper is to identify and diagnosis the problem in respect of cardiac disease among the African American males between the ages of 30 to 50. The identification is done by developing a health promotion plan within the target group. The Department of Health and Human Services in the U.S. has greatly influenced the objective to prevent the heart disease and to promote awareness among the people. The literature review done in the paper would enable depicting the reason behind a high rate of cardiac disease among the African American males and females having the highest percentage of mortality rate than the other gender and race. It also depicts the current nursing interventions and the successful and unsuccessful interventions of the heart disease. A short-term objective has been shown to determine the process of conducting awareness and identifying the causes of heart disease that will provide knowledge and promote the awareness among the public about the heart disea se. Part I: Nursing Process: Community Diagnosis Literature Review Healthy People: 2020 ‘Healthy People’ is a designed structure that promotes awareness among the people of the United States regarding health and avoidance of disease with a set of goals, as well as objectives with a 10-year target. The goals of ‘Healthy People’ are to prevent repeated heart attacks and to improve the health of the people through awareness, detection and treatment. Cardiac disease is a major factor leading to death among the people in the U.S. African American males of the ages of 30-50 years are the main victims of cardiac disease. ‘Healthy People’ is a program of the Department of Health and Human Services of the U.S. that provides an idea of science-based objectives to measure and to keep track of the health issues in a particular population. ‘Healthy People’ serves as the institution for activities, such as prevention, as well as wellness among t he people in different sectors of National Government. It is also used as a model to measure health of people at state, as well as at local levels (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Goals of Healthy People: 2020 ‘Healthy People’ program has certain specific comprehensive goals, such as aiming high quality lives for people that is prevented from disease, injury, as well as untimely death.  

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Teaching Activity & Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Teaching Activity & Reflection - Essay Example timulus which is controlled .For knowledge to be acquainted this way, it requires the use of an instructor who must be ready to demonstrate factual knoeledge,measure observe and modify behavior change in a specified direction. Conditioning reinforces behavior through reflex response to stimulus and if antecedents follow a behavior, it leads to consequences including reinforcement, reward and punishment. This is a learning theory that is composed of adoptive learning techniques, structure organization procedures, recognition, creation, reflection and evaluation. It developes conceptual knowledge procedures and techniques and solve problems using mathematical intelligence. This theory is based on generation of knowledge and expertise through interpersonal relations. It is a self directed learning and therefore it calls for motivation, decision making, personal integration and self evaluation. The chief goal of this theory is becoming self motivated with intrinsic motivation which comes from within a person and acts as driving force to accomplish acquisition of skills (Overbaugh and Lin). This is an important introductory step that involves capturing the attention of the student by a way of giving important information on what is required during the activity. It also includes provision of useful steps to be followed. So as a Trainer I will make sure that I have made my learner to understand the guidelines To conclude the challenges faced would include lack of suitable tennis balls, poor mastery of skill taught, poor concentration by students and lack of interest to play. Finally there would be lack of motivation if the learners are not

Monday, October 14, 2019

Lennie & George in Of Mice & Men Essay Example for Free

Lennie George in Of Mice Men Essay In the story Of Mice Men, John Steinbeck creates a pair of low-class companionship as the storys main character. This pair of companionship, George and Lennie is very different from each other, nothing alike, no matter talking about their figures, personality, IQ, etc, except that they both carry the same American dream as they spend their hard days traveling together and working in the ranch. Lennie is portrayed as being childlike. He looks up on George as a parental figure: Lennies lips quivered and tears started in his eyes. Lennie seek reassurance from George like a child does from their parents. He displays the excitement of a child: Tell me about the rabbits, George. Tell me about the rabbits. Steinbeck suggests that Lennies dependent on George and that we all need companionship even if the relationship is unequal. Not only is Lennie portrayed as being childlike, but also very forgetful: I forgot, tried not to forget. Honest to god I did George. Lennie always gets in trouble, and always needs George to help him out.: Course you did. Well, look Lennie if you jus happen to get in trouble like u always done before, I want you to come right here and hide in the bush. Not only does he make himself in trouble but also gives trouble to George: An whatta I got, I got you! You cant keep a job and you lose me ever job I get. Steinbeck wants to give the readers a hint or preparation that a serious event is going to occur with Lennie, he also wants to convey that although Lennie is big, it doesnt mean that he has a big brain nor can he be independent and look after himself. Lennie is also being put in a character with characteristics like an animal: His huge companion dropped his blankets and flung himself down and drank from the green pool; drank with long gulps, snorting into the water like a horse. Lennie enjoys keeping mice, but as a result always kills it: They were so little, Id pet them, and pretty soon they bit my fingers and I pinch they heads a little and they was dead because they were so little. Steinbeck wants to show that a big man also has a sensitive side, and that being strong also has disadvantages, especially for Lennie who enjoys to pet mice and as a result kills it very quickly due to his big, strong hands. Lennies physique is described by Steinbeck as being big, strong looking, but is also described to have body parts in which imitating an animal: A huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws. Although Lennie is very immature, but he is a very helpful and great worker : Say, you sure was right about him. Maybe he aint bright, but I never seen such a worker.He damn near killed his partner buckinbarley. There aint nobody can keep up with him. God, awmighty I never seen such a strong guy. Steinbck points out that even an immature, childish man like Lennie with low IQ, can also work better than a normal man, and that we should always give a chance to people like Lennie to work like a normal person with no prejudice against them. Lennie is a very simple minded man, and does whatever George tells him to do. He never thinks for himself and wont bother to rate if it was dangerous or not, he simply just does as he says, like master and servant: Tell you what made me stop that One day a bunch of guys were standin around Sacramento River.I was feelinpretty smart. I turned to Lennie and says Jump in and he jumps, couldnt swim a stroke. He damned near drowned before we could get him. Not only does Lennie always listen to Georges demands, but he also never rejects him and never dares to argue with him. He never got mad with it neither. Ive beat the hell outa him, and he could bust every bone in me just with his one han, but he never lifted a finger against me. Steinbeck expresses to readers that Lennie looks up at George at a higher status, like an idol and believes that whatever George tells him to do, is  for his own good, which is why he listens to George not minding if it is dangerous or not. Where as the other main character in the story Of Mice Men, known as George, is totally different from Lennie. George is suggested to protect Lennie too much, and that he doesnt let Lennie talk when he is suppose to. When he sells Lennie too much, people might mistaken that George is hiding something about Lennie.: Then why dont you let him answer? What you trying to put over?. George also uses a special technique to make Lennie listen to him, from this technique he gives pressure to Lennie so that he will always keep Georges words in mind.: But you aint gonna get in no trouble, because if you do, I wont let you tend the rabbits. Steinbeck points out that George is protecting Lennie too much, and that he should always let him try and let him communicate more, socialize more and approach the outside world more, or else he would depend on George too much and takes it as an advantage. George is also suggested to be smart, and has a lot of common sense. He uses his sensitive sensitivity to teach and lead Lennie to the right track: Tastes all right, dont really seem to be running though. You never oughta drink water when it aint running, Lennie. Not only is George sensitive but he is also very smart in the ability to judge correctly: You never had none, you crazy bastard. I got both of em here. Think I let you carry your own work card? Steinbeck shows the readers that it is an advantage for Lennie to be looked after by George, for George has the power to untie him from troubles he makes, and knows whats best for him. Steinbeck also tells the readers, that the people with the same problems as Lennie should always be helped and be guided to the right way, instead of being discriminated. George also gets very fed up with Lennie sometimes, having to escape with Lennie from the troubles Lennie has caused from time to time.: God amighty, if I was to live alone I could live so easy. I could get a job and  work, and no trouble. No mess at all, and when the end of the month come I could take my fifty bucks and go into town and get whatever I want. But on the other hand, he also cares a lot about Lennies feelings, and always persuades him to think towards the positive side when Lennie is depressed.: Aw, Lennie! I aint taking it away jus for meanness. That mouse aint fresh, Lennie; and besides, youve broke it pettin it. You get another mouse thats fresh and Ill let you keep it a while. Steinbeck suggests that in order to be companionships, we will have to care for one and anothers feelings, Steinbeck also coveys that there arent any perfect pair of companionship, for there has to be arguments between people, since humans are born with these characteristics. George having to be a trustworthy companionship with Lennie, always believes in his partner no matter what happens. He will always trust Lennie for whatever he does, and the decisions he makes.: Lennie never done it in meanness. All the time he done bad things, but never done one of them mean. George makes the relationship between Lennie and him like a family, George tells Lennie about their dreams, and how they are different to other people, as if its going to come true. George gives hope to Lennie making him feel better and have a target so that he wont feel that he is working for nothing and that they are working to make their dream come true.: But not us! An why? Because because I got you to look after me, and you got me to look after you, and thats why. Steinbeck tells the readers that although these low-class workers are poor and lonely, they havent got a stable home. But George and Lennie are different. For they carry a hope, a dream. This is why George and Lennie are never lonely. Steinbeck also suggests that an American dream in those days, does not come true easily. Overall I think that John Steinbeck wants us to know that we should use Lennie and George as an example to how we should treat people with the same problems as Lennie is facing. Instead of discriminating them, we should always give them a hand of trust to help them. John Steinbeck also suggests  that although Lennie may have mental problems, but from this information, it doesnt mean that Lennie is useless. He may be stupid, but he is very hard working and may be better than most normal workers working in the ranch. John Steinbeck also wants us to know that although people like Lennie often creates serious problems due to his stupidity, this doesnt suggest that he can use his low IQ, and stupidity as an excuse to not face the problem and just find another job, not caring what he had done before.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Responsibility for Health in New Zealand

Responsibility for Health in New Zealand The government has an important role in promoting health care, thus, the people are so lucky for being a citizen of New Zealand. Health is number one priority so the society has a continuing research to be able to provide the best health care to all the New Zealanders. Responsibility for health The responsibility for good health is a give and take process. It is a collaborative procedure between the New Zealanders and the society they belong. The people should broaden their minds about health care so as to avoid any kind of illness which will endanger their lives. Many of the citizens in New Zealand ask for medical assistance in order to make them well. That is one of the reasons why the government provides education for safe sex, urban planning, drug addiction, among others. The country has a public health institution that will advise those sick people not to be in contact with healthy individual to avoid contamination and spread of diseases. Every individual has its own way of taking care of their own health. One factor for this is their lifestyle. The New Zealanders have different lifestyle and so different illness or diseases contribute to the problem of health care in the country. It is true that everyone takes care of his health but the society has his on share to give medication to the people. Many are not well informed of the consequences of their daily routine or lifestyle, like the effect of smoking both to the smoker and the people around him, of not eating a well-balanced meal even the effect on the body of those who always work on a graveyard shift. The society got a responsibility over the health of every individual. And so proper dissemination of prevention of illness and promote good health should be done by the society particularly the government to help individual take care of themselves. There are many factors affecting the health of an individual like pollution, drug addiction, sanitation, food, water, health awareness and the spread of communicable diseases. The government have a thorough research on the prevention of diseases because the society believes that it would be easier for the individual to know what they should do to prevent diseases in order to lessen the pains and suffering on the part of the patient. All the people in New Zealand will be benefited, not only the sick ones. The urban planning is a nice strategy of the government to promote health care to the citizenry. Here, the people are given the options to have healthy choices for transportation and to avoid means of transportation that would be detrimental to his or her health. In urban planning, people likewise shall have a good recreation centers where they could engage in sport activities or do any of their preferred recreational activities. In addition, a good planning shall likewise provide the population of the work or job they would engage in that would not endanger their health. As what was said earlier, that it is a collaborative process, the people should be responsible of their own respective health and pay for their own health care. The responsibility of the society is to maintain and promote good health to every citizen and to provide financial support for the health maintenance in the country. Everyone knows that personal responsibility contributes much for a better health care. The p eople especially in the rural areas should be well informed on personal hygiene and the importance of cleanliness of the environment. Sanitation and cleanliness are great factors for a sound mind and body. The physical environment is also a contributory for good health. The government agencies prohibits any acts of pollution affecting the health of people. Pollution affects the lungs especially for the most vulnerable ones, the young kids and the old ones. Food is one of the needs of the body that everyone should know the right kind of food in order to have a healthy body. The government with the help of all health care providers shall see to it that healthy foods should be made available all the time so as to prevent the high rate of diseases related to diet and food intake in the country. To achieve this, people should be informed of the good effects of eating healthy foods and to discourage people to eat unhealthy foods. In view of this, all efforts of the government to promote health and improve health care, the people must be responsive and to take responsibility to take care of their own health. Health care is a global priority because all citizens in the society are after their health. Health institutions in New Zealand shall give special attention to health care for the benefit of all its people. Education and training Policy on education and training play a very vital role in the prevention and cure of illness and diseases. The policy on these must be prioritized to ensure achievement of a health society. The society and the family have their own respective roles to achieve the balance for health care insofar as education and training are concerned. The society includes among others, the government. The government should take a lead in educating and disseminating information pertaining to health care. It must set laws and rules which the population shall obey and abide. As the government enforces its laws, it must have programs that are acceptable and applicable to any type of sectors of the society. This would help the people to adapt easily and apply in their respective families and ultimately becomes routinary. All of this endeavour of the government must be supported by the private sectors. Extensive education, training and re-training by the government are futile without the cooperation of people. Everyone must be receptive with the laws and rules set by the government. It is the people that would transcribe the law into policy. Families, which are the basic unit of the society, have the greatest responsibility in the achievement of the goal. Each member has a responsibility to teach the whole family one way or another. Other members of the society that could be influential to these would be the schools, health care providers and the church. Upon the enforcement of the laws and cooperation of everybody, there shall be changed in the behaviour of the individual and eventually of the society and country to achieve such balance. Business regulations combining work and care giving As part of the implementation of the program of the government to achieve balance of responsibility for health care of the society and family, all work places must have regulations that combines work and care giving. Offices must have facilities that would allow employees to perform their duties as parents especially for their needy children. A common example of this is breastfeeding areas for nursing mothers. The office shall have a private place to allow nursing mothers to express milk for their newly born babies. Practices like this would encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies and providing them breastmilk, which are far more beneficial for the newborn babies than any other commercially prepared milk, thus, promoting good health. Strict implementation of such policies likewise needs the cooperation and involvement of everybody to help achieve the balance of responsibility for health care between society and family. Tax benefits and payments to caregivers In order to encourage all caregivers to provide a quality healthcare and to entice people to pursue a career as caregivers, there should be a good and steady tax benefits and payments for caregivers as one of their incentives. The government shall take a lead role for the implemention of this. The private sector shall only apply such rule if there is a strong political will. Once these policy intervention solutions mentioned above are established, we could be assured of the achievement of an equal responsibility for health care between the society and family. Conclusion Taking care of oneself, help of the government and the care of the caregivers is a collaborative way of having a healthy individual in the society. If everyone help each other and not blaming is a very wise thing to do. We cannot control or change the so many factor of contributing to bad health but if we do our part in making our community a healthy one then we should accept and take responsibility that we are liable to our own health and everyones health.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Andrew Jackon :: essays research papers

More nearly than any of his predecessors, Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man. Born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received sporadic education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and in a duel killed a man who cast an unjustified slur on his wife Rachel. Jackson prospered sufficiently to buy slaves and to build a mansion, the Hermitage, near Nashville. He was the first man elected from Tennessee to the House of Representatives, and he served briefly in the Senate. A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. President Bush Biography Vice President Cheney Biography Laura Bush Biography Lynne Cheney Biography In 1824 some state political factions rallied around Jackson; by 1828 enough had joined "Old Hickory" to win numerous state elections and control of the Federal administration in Washington. In his first Annual Message to Congress, Jackson recommended eliminating the Electoral College. He also tried to democratize Federal officeholding. Already state machines were being built on patronage, and a New York Senator openly proclaimed "that to the victors belong the spoils. . . . " Jackson took a milder view. Decrying officeholders who seemed to enjoy life tenure, he believed Government duties could be "so plain and simple" that offices should rotate among deserving applicants. As national politics polarized around Jackson and his opposition, two parties grew out of the old Republican Party--the Democratic Republicans, or Democrats, adhering to Jackson; and the National Republicans, or Whigs, opposing him. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other Whig leaders proclaimed themselves defenders of popular liberties against the usurpation of Jackson. Hostile cartoonists portrayed him as King Andrew I. Behind their accusations lay the fact that Jackson, unlike previous Presidents, did not defer to Congress in policy-making but used his power of the veto and his party leadership to assume command. The greatest party battle centered around the Second Bank of the United States, a private corporation but virtually a Government-sponsored monopoly. When Jackson appeared hostile toward it, the Bank threw its power against him. Clay and Webster, who had acted as attorneys for the Bank, led the fight for its recharter in Congress.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Want Answer of These Question

BECE 002 Bachelor’s Degree Programme (BDP) ASSIGNMENT For July 2012 and January 2013 Students Course Code: BECE 002 Title of Course: Indian Economic Development: Issues and Perspectives School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110068 BECE-002 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES 2012-13 Dear Student, As per the present pattern of assignments, you will have to do one assignment for this elective course BECE-002.The assignment is of 100 marks which contains 3 sections. Section I contains two questions of 20 marks each; Section II contains four questions of 12 marks each; and Section III contains two questions of 6 marks each. Submission Completed assignments should be submitted to the coordinator of your study center by March 31, 2013 for students admitted in July 2012 cycle and by September 30, 2013 for students admitted in January 2013 cycle. 2 BECE-002INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES Programme Code: BDP Course Code: BECE-002 Assignment Code: BECE-002/AST/TMA/2012-13 Maximum Marks: 100 Answer all the questions A. Long Answer Questions (word limit-500 words) 2Ãâ€"20=40 marks 1) Discuss the rationale behind the ‘capabilities and human development’ theory propounded by A. K. Sen. 2) Analyse the growth profile of India’s industrial production by ‘use based classification’ over the period 1960-2007. B.Medium Answer Questions (word limit-250 words) 4 x 12=48 marks 1) Discuss the concept of ‘population ageing’. 2) Explain briefly the risks of high fiscal deficit. 3) What are the causes of low productivity in Indian agriculture? 4) Discuss the features of Regional Trading Arrangements (RTAs). C. Short Answer Questions (word limit 100 words) 2Ãâ€"6=12 marks 1) What is meant by ‘work force participation rate’? 2) Write a note on the ‘prevention and protection’ aspect of flood management. 3

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Abortion Argument

The constant conflict over abortion in America has been a major social problem that started as an issue in our nation over two centuries ago. In the 1960's and 70's with the coinciding civil rights movement and women’s rights movement, abortion became the new national issue we still see today between two opposing sides. It is this struggle over whose deep rooted morals and beliefs are appropriate for our society that make the abortion issue such so controversial. First it is important to understand abortion and its history. Then to understand each side, their beliefs, the organizations tied to them, and their wishes for policies in our nation. We must look at the effects that both the mother and child must endure through the process. Then we must look at and understand the laws directed at abortion and why they were set in place. It is then with this information that we can acknowledge the effects and harm that abortion causes, and conclude an answer to this problem.On August 13th 2012 it was late term abortion day at Orlando Women’s Center. A woman arrived at the OWC to abort her twin baby girls. Her excuse was that she already had daughters and didn’t want have anymore. She was about twenty weeks along, but because it was twins, she was more than showing her progress. It only took a couple of hours for social media took hold of the situation. A man named John who original posted a photo of the woman began to get phone calls and emails from friends who had no idea abortions like these happen. Many offered financial help and many offered to adopt her babies.The woman ended up aborting the twin girls in her womb despite the generous help that was offered to her. She admitted that she didn’t want girls and that she had no compassion for the babies she was carrying. Through a two day process, she had to go into labor and deliver her babies into a toilet. Abortion like these happen all over the country every day, and it’s because of stories like this and a complete disregard for human life that abortion should be, in a sense, aborted itself. This essay considers whether the purpose of abortion is a solution by answering the following questions:1. What is abortion and who is involved? 2. How is the baby affected during the process? 3. How is the mother affected throughout the process? 4. What is our government doing about it?Understanding the history behind abortion, its process, and the effects of abortion to our women and children as well as our nation are very important. It highlights the complexity of abortion in the United States and the need for physicians, advocacy groups, and policymakers to implement the other choices woman can make to save lives, as well as enrich those around them. What is abortion and who is involved?It is important to know and understand abortion for what it is, to fully grasp the influence it can have on a woman. An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus. There are several types of abortions: spontaneous, induced, therapeutic, elective or voluntary, unsafe, and medical abortion. Spontaneous abortion is the body naturally expelling the fetus because of complications produced in the stages of the egg needing to attach to the uterine wall. Induced abortion is a direct involvement by use of medical or surgical methods.Therapeutic abortion is considered necessary because of fetal anomalies, rape, or to protect the health of the mother whether it is physically or psychologically damaging to her. Elective or voluntary abortion which is the termination of the embryo by request for reasons other than physical or psychological damage, which is the same abortion that was described in the story at the beginning of this essay. Unsafe abortion is the termination of an unintended pregnancy by a person incapable of successfully continuing the pregnancy without harmful effects to the mother. Medical abortion is a non-surgical abortion th at uses drugs to terminate the pregnancy. (â€Å"Abortion,† 2013) There are several organizations that make it their goal to prove which side of the abortion argument is true.

An Analysis of Writing Techniques in the Achievement of Desire Essay

This essay is elegantly written with well-chosen words. Besides that, Richard Rodriguez’s adept skills in depicting the author’s complicated yet conflicting mental activities through various literary devices is also the shinning point of this piece of work. In the essay, the author mainly used several techniques such as flashbacks, comparisons and contrasts, definition, quotation, and satire to enhance the readability and entertainment of its content, which cater to most readers’ tastes and could lead them to further and in-depth thinking and reflection. Before analyzing the Rodriguez’s skills to shape and present his idea, a briefing on the essay is necessary. Rodriguez, the author, devoted most of his time to gaining knowledge. He saw schooling as the best way to get rid of his embarrassed status as an immigrant Mexican and to escape from being a poor educated person as his parents. However, after reading hundreds and thousands of classics, he found himself becoming a â€Å"scholarship boy†, otherwise pedant or book worm, overweighed with knowledge but do not have his own views on things. In other word, the whole learning process of him is mimicking and memorizing other’s words. He did not realize this until he wrote a dissertation on Renaissance Literature. He became bored of ceaseless learning and grew nostalgic and missed the family intimacy and consolations. But what irony is that in his efforts to return his family life, he found that it was education that enabled him aware of his status quo and gave him another chance to cherish the forthcoming life. Now, after gaining a rough idea of the essay, we could turn to his first writing technique-flashback. Most stories began with such a written pattern, which could leave the readers in suspense and give them a lingering aftertaste. This is also true of Rodriguez’s work. In the opening of the essay, the author appeared as the guest speaker to give a lecture on the mystery of the sounds of words to the ghetto students. No one was really interested in his speech except a girl whose eagerness to learn and ways of taking note reminded the author of his school days. In order to propel the readers to move on, he uses such a sentence â€Å"It is myself (as a boy) I see as she faces me now (a man in my thirties)†. How could an adult see his youth in a girl’s eyes? A question like that will occur to most readers’ mind, and as a result they would read on with the intention to unravel it. This sentence also plays play the role of linking the preceding and the following passage, because in the second paragraph the author began with words like â€Å"the boy†. The following paragraph all dwelled on in a sequential narration matter. Apart from leading the reader to run along the plots, the main intention Rodriguez employs flashback is to introduce the main question, which is also the clue running through the whole essay, â€Å"How did I manage my success? †. By putting forward the question, the whole work has a pivot on which the reader could gain a better understanding of Rodriguez’s strange behaviors and complicated emotions in the rest content. The sharp and stark comparisons and contrasts between classroom and home, family life and school life, teachers and parents are also prevailing in Rodriguez’s writing. In Rodriguez’s eyes, home is a place one could feel the intense pleasure of intimacy and consolations while classroom is a place relatively reclusive and lonely, but the latter is more favorable when one is ready to embark on a road to knowledge. School life is dull and attentive while family life (concerning the author’s situation, the working class may be more pertinent) is an adult life full of trivial and petty things related to mundane life, such as Rodriguez’s description of his mother’s ironing and father’s habitual self-talks. Teachers, as Rodriguez sees it, they are the idols who could guide him in the process of searching for more knowledge. We can see this in his narration that even as a fourth grade students, he asked his teacher for booklists and librarians even reserve books for him. Parents, however, are poor educated who speak English with Mexican accent, making Rodriguez rather shameful in the grammar school graduation ceremony when the nun condescended to speak to them. These three comparisons and contrasts could be concluded as the conflicts between study and family. The author, with the eagerness to read more and the ambition to become elite, he chose the former. All these may render a strong sense of sympathy in the readers. They may be sorry and even curse the education which brings the author into such a tragic situation. Some readers, who have an intense interest in unrelenting pursuit of knowledge, might awaken to the reality that they are also leading a tragic life just like the author. Consequently, the illuminations people obtained from this essay may even change their way of life. Definition could also be spotted in this essay. The key term, scholarship boy coined by the author, has multiple levels of meanings. Definitions like â€Å"the scholarship boy must move between environments, his home and the classroom, which are at cultural extremes, opposed†, â€Å". . . The scholarship boy does not straddle, cannot reconcile, the two great opposing cultures of his life. †, â€Å"the scholarship boy makes only too apparent his profound lack of self-confidence. †, â€Å"The scholarship boy is a very bad student. He is the great mimic; a collector of thoughts, not a thinker. † and so on so forth. Any reader, who follows closely with the author’s flow of thoughts, could readily identify the scholarship boy he referred in distain and shame is himself. We could also draw such a conclusion from the last paragraph â€Å"I was a scholarship boy at the time†¦Ã¢â‚¬  So why does Rodriguez define it so frequently with different interpretations? What’s his purpose? In my view, Rodriguez in doing so is just want to highlight his regrets of distancing himself from family life and his shame of being a machine learning by mimicking and memorizing without originality. Like a person who committed some bad deeds, he would keep bubbling and muttering to show his regrets and sorrows. This would also give a sharp impression on the readers, making them reflect on the purpose of education and their own ways of learning. Quotations are scattered in this essay, most of them are from The Use of Literary Written by Richard Hoggart. For instance, in order to explain a scholarship boy’s nostalgic feeling at the end of his education he cited a paragraph from Richard Hoggart’ book, â€Å"The nostalgia is the stronger and the more ambiguous because he is really â€Å"in quest of his own absconded self yet scared to find it. He both wants to go back and yet thinks he has gone beyond his class, feels himself weighted with knowledge of his own and their situation, which hereafter forbids him the simpler pleasures of his father and mother. . . .† The contradicting moods are vividly presented in these words, which also makes the readers easier to grasp Rodriguez’s painful and conflicting emotions. He wants to go back to the family life and enjoys the intimacy but his desire for knowledge prevented him from doing that, which resembles a girl who is longing for a piece of candy but her decayed tooth deprives this enjoyment. So the author must be very helpless and painful during this process. Satire is also another main technique the author used to better present his idea. The repeat definition of scholarship boy is a satire, people’s constant inquiry of the secret of his success and his unexpected answer (I couldn’t forget that schooling was changing me and separating me from the life I enjoyed before becoming a student. ). The biggest satire of this work is that the author found that the education made him distant himself from his parents while it again offered him chance to care for them. What an irony it is! These ironies add an entertaining yet painful effect to the essay and the readers, driving them to think deep. To sum up, all these writing technique do bring the readers forward and hold their attention, but the unique experience of the author is the trump card of this essay’s success.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Netflix Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Netflix - Essay Example What Type Of Competitive Advantage Is Netflix Trying To Achieve? Being the largest online movie rental in the world, Netflix is trying to increase the number of clientele to more than 6.3 million that will be able to access more than 70,000 DVD titles. They are also expanding their markets throughout United States by having a cheaper physical presence than their competition, as well as a good customer base for the same. Their other advantage was differentiation where they delivered and charged their movies differently from their main competitors (Netflix, Inc., 2012). Though the strategy could only work for short term basis, it was trying before they came up with other ideas. The strategy made them dominate the markets, and they got loyal customers who still subscribed to them even after few changes were made. Netflix also invested in a unique design referred to personalization that further differentiated their services and helped maintain most of their customers. This design helped Netflix strengthen their relationship with their customers in var ious ways especially by giving them smarter services than other competitors. Question 2 How Strong Are The Competitive Forces In The Movie Rental Marketplace? Competitive forces in the movie market world are not very strong at the moment because there are only three competitors, Redbox, Netflix and Blockbuster. Majority of the people around the world prefer recording movies from their televisions, or prefer watching movies from sites where subscription is not required or watch them online giving most of the movie renters to shut down. This leaves few competitors who have been in the business long enough to know what is required to still have people using their services on a daily basis. They ensure that for every lost client, there is a new one by introducing various strategy of beating the competition and keeping up with technology. Providing best qualities of movies, as well as the latest DVDS has made the three renters stay in business. Knowing the needs of customers is key to success and the three companies have endeavored to know the requirements of thei r customers and endeavored to provide all their needs. Do Five-Force Analysis To Support Your Answer? By using Porters five forces analysis which includes: rivalry, from research there not much competition in the movie rental world with competitors being; any local vendors, Blockbuster, Netflix and Redbox. Secondly there is the threat of substitutes where it can only be websites that allow people to watch movies online for free. Satellite companies and cables allow people to pay the required fee and watch anything they want from the comfort of their homes (Netflix, Inc., 2012). The third force is the buyer power where it indicates that it is up to the buyer to make a choice of whether they want to rent a certain movie or not and if they have the capability to do so. If they chose not to rent any films there is nothing the renters can do about it. Supplier power is another force which indicates that the more films they have the more power they get over their competition. The last for ce is the barriers to entry where specific rental

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

The Basis of Sex Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Basis of Sex Education - Essay Example What is important here is how well the politicians and celebrities keep their profiles in an easily identifiable manner and what they are doing to make sure that their acts are given the proper leverage that they would like to receive at the hands of the common man and woman on the street. The debate has more feet than one can think of. This is because the people at the helm of affairs within the imparting of sex education have not been able to decipher the true representation and depiction of this form of knowledge which the children of present times should have for their respective personal careers. This would keep them aware of how others can take undue advantage of them and what they must do to make sure that the negativities remain at a fair enough distance from them. This debate has weight because the role played by the politicians and celebrities is not a good one since they are indulging in acts of a sexual nature, which would in return mean that the teenagers would not mind getting into the same as well. There has to be a dis-associative feeling attached with such a notion in order to bring the debate under wraps and to find a solution in the end. There is a great amount of evidence available which suggests that sex education should be kept at a safe distance from the shores of the schools and colleges, which is indeed a much debatable aspect of the subject at hand. This is because sex education domains have only helped the students to grow and develop as a whole. It has asked for their continuous improvement in terms of mental levels and understanding of sensitive issues which they might know come across if they were not subjected to education ranging from a sexual nature. The sex education realms are therefore very closely attached with how well the celebrities and politicians manage their respective selves. If they do not concentrate on hiding their respective sexual acts and involve within such acts, it would mean there are problems of a magnanimou s nature and the sex education debates would continue to exist in the coming times as well.     Ã‚  

Monday, October 7, 2019

Causes of the Financial Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Causes of the Financial Crisis - Essay Example The analysis takes a global outlook to examine the various issues connected with the financial turmoil which is believed to be begun as a result of U S mortgage crisis. There are divergent opinions as to what caused this global phenomenon that resulted in the ravage and meltdown of stock markets in almost all countries. The present chapter, however, throws lights on the reasons that are generally believed to have contributed to the most distressed global crisis The US originated crisis started late in the 20th century became acute in 2007 from the US subprime lending market like a distant tornado. More than two million homes financed by subprime lenders were expected to face foreclosure in the period of crisis and nearly 17% of subprime mortgages issued so far were projected to fail (Center for Responsible Lending). The roots of the current US subprime lending crisis can be traced back to the spiraling housing prices in the first half of this decade. Extremely low lending and borrowing rates increased the demand and supply of existing and new houses. Several institutions started offering subprime mortgages, to borrowers who had unfavorable credit history, at lower than normal repayment interest levels with little or no down payments. Many investment banks and hedge fund owners began to bet on this new aspect of the US economy. This had allowed investors to avail themselves of loans at low interest rates and invest them in higher yielding a venues. But soon with the US Central Bank (Federal Reserve) initiating a series of interest rate hikes leading to the increase of cost of borrowing to 5.25%, which is the maximum since the last half a decade, and a simultaneous decrease in housing prices, the subprime mortgages were reset at high rates leaving the borrowers to foreclose their accounts and miss payments (Lawrence 2000). As an outcome, financial institutions and banks with mortgage securities incurred huge losses and had to trade their assets leading to subprime lending crisis. Even though "Countrywide Financial", the biggest mortgage lender in the US, managed to withstand this crisis owing to the diversification in writing of the loans, other big players like New Century Financial, DR Horton, Weyerhaeuser and American Home Mortgage are all reeling under its impact (Kenneth 1990). 2. Low Inflation For 15 years the US economy had long and continuous economic expansion with low inflation. The US economy was following an expansionary monetary and fiscal policy. There was excess liquidity in the economy. During this period, the rate of interest was very low and there was a housing sector boom. During this good time, financial institutions, particularly investment banks showed a lot of interest in providing housing loan. They took heavy risk and made huge profits. High profits encouraged the banks to take higher risk. High leveraged transaction with life covenant became the norm. They started providing loan to prime as well as subprime borrowers though the borrowers did not have the capacity to repay the loan if the interest rate would go up. Loans were given on the assumption that housing prices always would go up and in the initial stage; borrowers were charged lower interest rate. 3. Fall of Major Investment Banks and Financial Institutions The

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Nation Building Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Nation Building - Essay Example To begin with, it is imperative to define nationalism. A force that is capable of rendering a national character to any uprising or event, nationalism is a phenomenon that permeates into the very core of a citizen's life. This has been studied in context of the book by Charles Tilly titled European Revolutions (1993) The hypothesis of this paper is the study of similarities and differences between UK, France and Russia as far as the aspects of the journey from revolution to nationalism is concerned, as discussed and hypothesized by Charles Tilly. These similarities and differences will be studied on the basis of the following three aspects: The basic hypothesis as put forth by Tilly throughout the book is that Europe is still in the making. Here, it is imperative to understand democracy so as to understand the ends of this journey and the point of the hypothesis. Democracy has been best defined as "of the people, for the people, by the people." It is a phenomenon that arises out of the various contextual realities that people represent in various walks of life as well as the socio economic strata of individual countries. To qualify as a democracy, a country must fulfil the following criteria: According to Tilly, Nationalism as a feature on any country's historical or cultural climate rises to the fore as a result of threats. It is only when confronted with a threat, does a country - made up of its people and their collective sentiments - wake up and recognise their strengths. This has been seen in the case of colonial expansion as followed by France and UK. These countries, with UK garnering maximum areas around the world by 1921, based their foreign policy of nationalism around colonization. France, in particular was a competitor for UK with its policy of colonization. These in effect become the strength of the nation and nationalism is born. (Tilly, 1993; P 10) In this way, nationalism is defined, anew; every time there is suffering followed subsequently by an upheaval. As a result of this, nationalism or nation building can be called dynamic concept. This is owing to the fact that its elements change with the changing times and the reasons for upheavals. (Elias, 2000) 2 The only thing constant about nationalism is its power to bind people together as a nation and the fact that it rises to prominence only in the face of adversity. In modern times, nationalism has become a matter of celebrating everything that a nation takes pride in. This includes independence days, art, literature, music and various other symbols that are a part of the national character as a whole - elements that remind nations of its past victories and present strengths. (Almond et al, 2001)3 Essentials of Revolution Tilly maintains that a revolution is a social movement. He argues that a social movement is one that is punctuated with a highly idealistic environment with realistic parameters that set the stage for immediate results and emergence of future trends that will go onto dominate the structure and functioning of that particular society for generations to come. (Tilly, 1993; Pp 47 - 48) Issues like principles, revolutionary change and personal strength and a search for identity of a group

Friday, October 4, 2019

Introduction to health behaviours and to Health Psychology Essay - 1

Introduction to health behaviours and to Health Psychology - Essay Example Research indicates that these tobacco leaves, when combusted, release active substances which create a sensation in the human body which is why the activity is sometimes also referred to as recreational use of drugs. In most cases, when the cigarette is lighted, vapors are created which heat up the aerosol in such a way that the gases that are discharged to be inhaled by the smokers. An analysis of the health hazards related to smoking reveals striking evidence of extreme risks it poses. Research indicates that smoking alone is responsible for causing preventable death on a global level, where in the USA alone, around 500,000 deaths are attributed to smoking hazards (Eysenck 2000: 12-13). Furthermore, due to the highly invasive yet insidious risks related to smoking, public policy is now being focused in the area. More so, critical hazards are associated with the asendorphins or the dopamines are the chemicals which directly incite the nerve endings of the brains after which they ten d to trigger sensations mostly pertaining to pleasure. Aside from the critical health hazards, smoking also influences major behavioral patterns and human psyche, due to which psychologists also spend major tenure studying psychology of smoking. A significant development regarding psychological research in the area of smoking took place somewhere in the mid 20th century. During this era, psychologists like Hans Eysenck started working on profiling the personality of smokers during that era. Thus, the paper aims at exploring the issue from both psychological as well as medical perspective to seek a complete account of the issue. To understand the related health hazards and the following psychological hazards, it is crucial to study the process which goes into the activity comprising smoking. In most cases, the cigarette is contained inside a compound of aerosol inclusive particles along with other gases and activated

Thursday, October 3, 2019

The development of new reproductive technologies Essay Example for Free

The development of new reproductive technologies Essay Explain some of the religious and moral issues relevant to the development of new reproductive technologies. [35] The development of new reproductive technologies have revolutionised the way society views infertility. However, many object to methods such as IVF, cloning, ICSI and PGD for moral and religious reasons. In examining these issues, a good place to start is IVF. IVF – in vitro fertilisation – is one of the most commonly used reproductive technologies. This method bypasses the need for intercourse to conceive; embryos are instead created in a lab and implanted into a mother. It can either use gametes from two parents, or in the case of a homosexual couple some of the material will be donated. From a human-rights perspective everyone has the right to a family life, which some interpret to mean a right to IVF. However, even from a purely secular point of view there are moral problems with IVF. For example, the new ICSI method bypasses many of the bodys natural defences for weeding out unfit sperm and therefore the child is at a higher risk of genetic abnormalities. Additionally, some feminists view reproductive technology with suspicion. Feminists refer to a `pro-natalist ideology prevalent in Western society, whereby women are encouraged to believe that their fulfilment and happiness depends upon their being able to bear children. They fear women may be coerced into IVF. The main issue that Christians would have with IVF is that many embryos are created and then destroyed. More embryos are produced in order to increase the chances of successful implantation, but in the UK you cannot use more than two embryos per IVF cycle. This creates spare embryos that are discarded, experimented upon or frozen for later use. The majority of Christians believe that life and personhood are intertwined, and both begin at conception. Christians believe in the sanctity of life, meaning that all human life is created in God’s image and has intrinsic worth. The most important verse they turn to is part of the Decalogue: â€Å"do not kill.† Moreover, Psalm 139 says, â€Å"you knit me together in my mother’s womb.† Therefore the discarding of spare embryos is murder of an innocent life. As with any issue, denominational opinions differ. The Roman Catholic Church defends traditional family structures and view IVF as unnatural. They published a document in 1987called Respect for Human Life in its Origin and the Dignity of Procreation. This emphasised the principles concerning the sanctity of life laid down much earlier in the Papal Encyclical, Humanae Vitae of 1968. In summary it claimed that children were a gift from God and not a commodity, and the proper place for children is within marriage. The church has expressed fears that IVF trivialises intercourse. Protestant churches tend to take a more lenient view. For example, the Free Presbyterian Church accepts IVF provided that the couple are married, spare embryos are not created and no donors are used. Both the Methodist Church and the Church of England are quite positive about all forms of IVF and even permit research on spare embryos up to 14 days old because it can be of great help to doctors researching genetic diseases, although embryos should not be created solely for this purpose. Other more drastic forms of reproductive technology pose a bigger problem for the churches. The successful cloning of Dolly the Sheep opened up a debate on the potential of human cloning and saviour siblings. Reproductive cloning would devalue individuality and result in negative psychological effects in the cloned person. Cloned animals tend to have a shorter lifespan and there is a genuine fear that a sub-class of humans could be produced in order for their organs to be harvested. This commodification of life sounds like science fiction, but according to Paul Ramsey it is a real threat. Cloning also removes the need for a male. In the case of Dolly, she had three ‘mothers’: one provided the egg, another the DNA and a third carried the cloned embryo to term. The embryo was given an electric shock in order to begin the division process. For Christians this disrupts God’s design for reproduction and parenthood. The only form of cloning that some churches would permit is therapeutic cloning, when a person’s stem cells can be used to produce organs that are an exact match. Mary Seller, a member of the Church of Englands Board of Social Responsibility, states, Cloning, like all science, must be used responsibly. Cloning humans is not desirable.† Furthermore, another key form of reproductive technology is PGD pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. This process can eliminate genetic diseases by selection (negative therapy) and can also alter the genes to ‘improve’ an embryo (positive therapy). It can be used to prevent suffering for both the child and parents. Moral objects are raised because, just like IVF, negative therapy involves fertilising several embryos with the intent of destroying those with the disease. This is dehumanising to disabled people, because it suggests that society would be better off without them. Positive therapy takes it to another level, and could result in a class of humans that are genetically modified for maximum health, intelligence and appearance. This destroys individualism and Christians refer to it as, â€Å"playing God.† According to the Free Presbyterian Church, â€Å"remember that each time cells are harvested for the treatment of someone who is sick, a new and sacred lif e is callously ended.† Moving on, reproductive technology can be evaluated according to traditional ethical principles. Starting with Utilitarianism, Patrick Steptoe is quoted as stating that It is a fact that there is a biological desire to reproduce.† If this is the case, then the maximum amount of happiness for the greatest amount of people will be achieved if they are able to reproduce, even if they need IVF or other interventions. Since successful IVF treatment will bring an enormous amount of happiness utilitarians are in agreement with such treatments. In the case of an infertile couple the utilitarian will look at the options available and strive towards to goal of conception. Likewise, if PGD and cloning can help alleviate human suffering it will be supported by utilitarians. Situation ethics bases the morality of an action on the circumstances that surround it. The only underlying principle is that we should always choose the most loving course of action, and there is no absolute morality. Whether an infertile couple should have access to IVF is based entirely on their individual situation. Natural law, on the other hand, is not so accepting. It is similar to the view the Roman Catholic Church takes. IVF and other technologies are unnatural and therefore immoral. Some criticise this theory because they claim that it is no more unnatural then the countless other forms of human intervention such as when we have an operation. Ultimately, reproductive technology causes us to rethink our views on family, marriage, sex and what makes a mother. Regardless of their views, Christians should be compassionate towards those suffering from the effects of infertility. You cannot understand their situation unless you have experienced it personally.

Site Directed Mutagenesis of Subtilisin

Site Directed Mutagenesis of Subtilisin Introduction Subtilisin is a monomeric protein serine protease, which is produced by Gram positive bacteria and fungi.(1) Serine proteases are a subgroup of carbonyl hydrolase. These carbonyl hydrolases can be naturally occurring or recombinant. Naturally occurring carbonyl hydrolases consists of subtilisin matalloproteases, serine carboxypeptidase and thiol proteinase. In case of recombinant carbonyl hydrolase, the sequence coding for the wild type enzyme is altered to produce a mutant either by insertion, substitution or deletion of amino acid. Proteases are a diverse class of enzymes having several biological functions and specificities. The catalytic machinery of these enzymes is attributed to subtilisin and mammalian chymotrypsin related bacterial serine protease.(2) They are responsible for cleaving peptide bonds found in proteins. The proteases play an important role in cell wall turnover and are maximally expressed in the stationary phase. Serine proteases have molecular weights ranging f rom 25,000-30,000. They are inhibited by diidopropylfluorophosphate but are resistant to EDTA ( ethylene diamaine tetra acetic acid.) (3) The amino acid sequences of several subtilisins like subtilisin Carlsberg, subtilisin BPN, and subtilisin DY are known. Subtilisin BPN is a 275 amino acid serine protease, which is secreted by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. This enzyme is industrially important and its gene has been cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. This molecule has two enzyme binding sites- one of the site binds weakly to cations and the other one binds calcium with high affinity. These calcium binding sites are common characteristics of microbial proteases since they contribute towards kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Subtilisin is majorly used in industries wherein the environment contains high levels of metal chelators which remove the calcium from subtilisin , thus reducing its stability. It would be highly beneficial to create a stable subtilisin which would be independent of calcium. These mutated subtilisin enzymes will have an enhanced stability even in the presence of detergents and chaotropic ag ents. X-ray crystallographic analysis of mutants revealed that the conformational changes due to the mutations are localized, with very less distortion of the backbone structure. Thus a large increase in stability can be obtained with very minor changes in the protein structure. Mutants can be created by deletion, addition or substitution of amino acids at positions 75-83. The deletion of amino acids 75-83 has shown to eliminate the calcium binding site while still retaining its enzymatic activity. However, calcium free subtilisins are susceptible to proteolysis. This can be overcome by converting the active site serine 221 to cysteine (S221C). This allows the protein to fold without any auto-degradation by proteolysis. A recombinant DNA was created which encoded an active subtilisin protein without the ability to bind to calcium. The protein had no codons which specifies amino acids 75-83 and had certain additional stabilizing mutations at the N-terminal amino acids 1-8 or the ÃŽ ± helix amino acids 70-74 or the helix turn amino acids 84-89. Suitable host cells were transformed with an expression vector containing this DNA segment. Upon culturing the host cells the enzymatically active subtilisin mutant was expressed and recovered.(1) Fabric cleaning compositions containing subtilisin BPN mutants The ability to hydrolyze proteins can be exploited by incorporating these proteases as an additive to laundry detergents. Most of the stains on clothes are proteinaceous and these enzymes can efficiently aid in their removal. The amino acid sequence of the protease is responsible for its characteristics. The subtilisin BPN variants have modifications at 2-3 amino acid positions. This variant has an increased hydrolytic power and decreased adsorption to an insoluble substrate as compared to the original subtilisin. A decreased adsorption to the substrate results in a better cleaning performance. In subtilisin BPN, the amino acids ranging from position 199-220 form a large exterior loop on the molecule. This loop plays an important role in mediating the adsorption of enzyme to the surface bound peptide and mutations in this region will affect the adsorption. The substituting amino acids in case of a mutation are either neutral or negatively charged. The substituting amino acid for position 199 is mostly His, Ala, Cys, Pro, Glu, Asp, Gly, Asn or Gln and for position 207 is Glu or Asp. The cleaning compositions comprise of 0.001-1% of one or more enzyme variants. The enzyme variants can be used along with other conventional ingredients to produce efficient fabric laundry composition. These fabric cleaning compositions also contain various zwitterionic or anionic surfactants, hydrotopes, dyes or pigments, primary or secondary alcohols, chelating agents and brighteners. Fermentation: The Bacillus subtilis cells having the subtilisin mutant are allowed to grow till mid log phase in LB glucose broth and is then inoculated into a fermentor. The cells are grown overnight at 37ËÅ ¡C. Chloramphenicol is added for the antibiotic selection of mutagenized plasmid. The cells are removed from the broth by centrifugation The enzyme is purified by affinity adsorption or cation exchange chromatography. The active enzyme concentration is determined by the pNA assay. ( para nitro anilide) This assay measures the rate at which pNA is released as the enzyme hydrolyses the substrate. The rate at which the yellow colour is produced is measured at 410nm with the help of a spectrophotometer and is directly proportional to the enzyme concentration. The total protein concentration can also be estimated by determining the absorbance at 280nm. (4) Production of subtilisin variants Techniques used in microbiology, molecular biology, protein purification and recombinant DNA technology are all used in developing a subtilisin variant, which is a part of dish washing and fabric cleaning compositions. Cassette mutagenesis method for production of protease variants The gene encoding the protease is sequenced The sequence is screened for a point at which desired mutation can be made The sequences flanking this region are checked for the presence of restriction enzyme site so as to replace a short segment of the gene with an oligonucleotide which will then encode various mutants. The gene is mutated by primer extension The oligonucleotides are synthesized to have the same restriction sites, eliminating the need for synthetic linkers to create the restriction site. The genes coding for serine proteases of B.amyloliquefaciens, B.subtilis and B.licheniformis can be used as targets for mutagenesis. The gene can be inserted into a suitable vector and introduced into a host strain ( Bacillus PB92) for expression and production of mutant proteases. These mutations / substitutions enhance the performance and stability of subtilisin in detergent compositions. These serine proteases can be used in the form of granules and liquid composition both in laundry dishwashing and cosmetic applications. These enzymes are often in the form of encapsulated particles in order to protect it from the other components. Encapsulation also improves the enzyme performance and helps in regulating its availability. The encapsulating material can be derived from carbohydrates, silicates, polyvinyl alcohol, borates, PEG or paraffin waxes. Fabric cleaning performance by Blood Milk Ink microswatch assay. (BWI) This assay is performed on a microtitre plate. Samples of the subtilisin variants and reference subtilisin are obtained from filtered culture broths. 10ul samples of the enzyme are added to the BWI swatch plate along with 90ul of working detergent solution. The plates are incubated for 30 minutes. 100ul of the supernatant is transferred into a new microtiter plate and its absorbance is measured. Control wells contain the detergent solution without the protease sample. The measurement at 450nm tracks pigment removal and at 600nm tracks turbidity and cleaning. The performance index (PI) of the variant is calculated. PI compares the performance of variant and reference enzyme at the same protein concentration. PI>1 the variant is better than the wild type. PI=1 variant and standard have the same performance PI