Friday, May 31, 2019

Essay --

Jonathan SantosgonzalezDr. Mike PettengellENG 10210 March 2014Art History Assignment da Vinci di ser Piero da VinciLeonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci a Tuscan hill town in the territory of the republic of Florence, son of wealthy Messer Piero Fruosini di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary and Caterina, a peasant. His skilful name was Leonardo di ser Pierro da Vinci, the title ser indicated that his father was a gentleman. There is not too much known about his early years but that he lived in the home of his mother until 1457 and then in the household of his father in the small town of Vinci.At the age of fourteen, in 1466, Leonardo was apprenticed of the artist Andrea di Cione, whose workshop was one of the best in Florence. Leonardo was exposed to both theoretical training and a vast range of practiced skills, including drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics and carpentry as well as the artistic skil ls of drawing, painting, sculpting and modelling. According to VasariLeonardo collaborated with ...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Merchant of Venice Essay: Refuting the Critics -- Merchant Venice Ess

In The Jew of Venice, Granville takes up and refutes the principal subversions, in The Merchant of Venice that modern and postmodernist critics have imposed upon on the play.  Without its alleged contradictions, the play has a tight formalist structural unity, it focuses on an essentialist Platonic idea, and, resolving all conflicts, it ends in closure.              On the subject field of Antonios sadness, Granville picks up a clue that to my knowledge no modern critic has noticed.  In his methodizing process, he moved Antonios play-opening line--I know not why I am so sad--to Bassan- ios feast, between the toasts and the masque, and merged it with Jessicas fifth act misgiving--I am never merry when I hear sweet medicinal drug (5.1.69). Listening to the unison at his friends feast, Granvilles Antonio laments,                        & nbsp             O Bassanio           There sits a heaviness upon my heart           Which wine cannot remove  I know not           But music ever makes me thus. (2.2.35-38)   Lorenzos comforting answer to Jessica in act 5 of Shakespe ares play then becomes Bassanios comforting answer to Antonio act 2 of Granvilles           The reason is, your spirits are attentive     &nb... ... spoils.             In The Jew of Venice, Granville, who resides in Shakespeares own moral community, takes up and refutes the principal subversions, leaks, interrogations, and dark shadows in The Merchant of Venice that modern and postmodern critics, working from what I beg are irrelevant post- capitalist prejudices, have imposed upon on the play.& nbsp Without its alleged contradictions, the play has a tight formalist structural unity, it focuses on an essentialist Platonic idea, and, resolving all conflicts, it ends in closure.  Unless there are other reasons than those commonly given for alleging that The Merchant of Venice is multivalent and plural in meaning, we will have to assume, for the time being at least, that it isnt.    

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Why Do Labor Unions Matter? Essay -- Why Unions Matter

IntroductionThe labor articulation movement over the years has do the way individuals work and live for both the nicest and unpleasant. Some would think the unions influence has created a power struggle between management and union leaders. In instantlys time, some citizens insist the existence of unions ar a must to aid in employee liberty, while others view the labor unions as just some other problem in the line of progress. The purpose of labor unions was for employed workers to come together and collectively agree on fundamental workplace objectives. The rise of the union came about after the Civil War- responding to the industrial economy. Surprisingly at the least unions became popular within the 1930-50s and began to slowly decrease, starting in the 1960s on to today. Although, the popularity of labor unions has decreased, its importance remains to be evident with politics, journalism, auto, and the public education industries. The objective of this paper is to shine lig ht upon labor unions, taking a adpressed look at the disputed issues of union ethics, concerns of union diversity, and the opposing viewpoints of labor unions.Why Do Labor Unions Matter?Unions have an extensive history of rest up for workers. They have advocated rights of steelworkers, coal miners, clothing factory employees, teachers, health care workers, and many others. The labor movement is based on the idea that organized workers as a group have more power than individuals would have on their own. The key purpose of any union is to negotiate contracts, making sure workers are respected and fairly compensated for their work. In theory unions are democratic organizations, resulting in varying inner authority. Workers look for security within a note a... ...d from http//data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet (accessed May 5, 2012).Wagner, V. (2008). Labor Unions opposing viewpoints. Farmington Hills, MI Greenhaven Press.Gould, W. (1977). Black workers in white unions Job discrim ination in the United States. London Cornell University Press.Dine, P. (2008). State of the Unions. New York. NY McGraw-Hill.Zieger, R. (2007). For jobs and freedom Race and Labor in America since 1865. Lexington, KY The University Press of Kentucky.McNeese, T. (2008). The Labor Movement Unionizing America. New York. NY InfoBase Publishing.SOLIDARITY FOR SALE - LABORERS LIUNA-An Unofficial Look At ... (n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.laborers.org/SOLIDARITYFORSALE.html Ethics and the Unions - Part 1. industrial Workers of the World. (n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.iww.org/en/history/library/Dolgoff/newbeginning/1

Japanese Education Essay examples -- Essays Papers

lacquerese Education Japan is a country that takes education very seriously. This may be understood by the remarkable motion that has been made. Japan=s education system played a major(ip) role in enabling the country to meet the challenges presented by the need to cursorily understand Western ideas, science, and technology in the Meiji Period. It was also a key factor in Japan=s recovery and fast growth in the years that followed World War II. We can=t assume that education is the only thing that shaped the country, but can we say that it was a major influence in prosperity and welfare. Despite what may have happened before, it is clear that the education reform was necessary to build back up Japan=s prosperity in the years to come. History of Japans Education Education has always existed one form or another. The first system of education was during the Tokugawa Period, which placed a high sense of learning. They learned benevolence, justice, courtesy and i ndividual integrity. These were the most stressed systems of thought. The men also had to learn education and the ways of war. The founder of this method was Tokugawa Ieyasu, he issued a law saying Aarts of peace (10) which meant learning and also to learn the arts of war. He felt that both were of equal importance and should be master by all. After this system was applied, by the 1860s much of the curriculum was found in more than 300 schools across Japan. This soon changed by1868, when one of the top students from the Tokugawa education, suggested that Japan can compare with other Adeveloped nations(11) of this time. After this suggestion Japan accepted many of the Western ideas. They wanted to modernize their country and by doing th... ...dation, 1982. Beauchamp, Edward R. AEducation and Schooling in Japan since 1945. New York & London. Garland Publishing, Inc, 1998.Walberg, Herbert J., and Leestma, Robert. AJapanese Educational Productivity. University of Michigan, 1983.Japan=s Education System. December 5, 2003. November 5, 2003.Japan=s Education System. September 30, 2003. November 5, 2003.Japan Access. December 1, 2003. November 5, 2003. Japanese Education and Literacy. August 1, 2003. November 5, 2003.Role of Education in Economic Development in Japan. September 23, 2003. November 5, 2003.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

American Colonists Essay -- American History Religion Essays

American Colonists You wil be amazed to check that which has been occurring in the American colonies. Chaos reigns where once there existed venerate rage has displaced peace. Some wick ed force has corrupted the colonists hearts against their own pouf and, therefore, against their own best interests as wel. More everyplace, the fuel for this sinful fire, in a large part, emerges from a tiny pamphlet, writen anonymously and for this and li tle else, I give its fountain credit for inteligence. If identified, I imagine that this traitor would suffer greatly for the outrageous views he presents in Common Sense, which strikes me as anything but common sense.My first protest to this dreadful work of literature is its blatant misuse of the biblical reference to Samuel in the atempt to support its groundless claims. Granted, kings impose upon their subjects the danger of succumbing to idolatry only, of course, if the people want aid from their king or else than from God. Such hor rific temptation would surely justify the colonists cause. However, by comparing the colonists present situation to that of the Israelites, the author has made a serious blunder. As Gods chosen people, partakers of His authentic covenant, which rested upon obeying the Commandments, the Israelites commited an atrocious sin by asking for a man ruler rather than relying upon their God, who lived among them. Mankind now, by the Lords second covenant, plump fors upon the favor and salvation offered in Christ Jesus. The law stil applies, but under different circumstances, thus reading it acceptable to live beneath the rule of a human king, so long as the heart and soul depend solely upon the King of kings.In addit ion, the coloquial language offends any... ...r litle about much(prenominal) things. What the author lacks in scriptural wisdom, therefore, he compensates for in more worldly knowledge for this, some credit must be due. Third, granted, when viewed with detachment, an isla nd ruling a continent over such a prolonged expanse of ocean does appear quite ridiculous. However, t here exist bonds among the colonists and the European nations, from which they claim their heritage, that surpass al distances and circumstances.I am therefore inclined to conclude that either the colonists have gone completely mad over the last centu ry and a half, or circumstances have changed to such an extent that I can no longer deem my former home recognizable. In the former case, let my statements remain as they stand. In the later, alow me to stand corrected in accordance to the present circ umstances and condition of the American colonists. American Colonists Essay -- American History Religion EssaysAmerican Colonists You wil be amazed to learn that which has been occurring in the American colonies. Chaos reigns where once there existed reverence rage has displaced peace. Some wick ed force has corrupted the colonists hearts against their own king and, t herefore, against their own best interests as wel. Moreover, the fuel for this sinful fire, in a large part, emerges from a tiny pamphlet, writen anonymously and for this and li tle else, I give its author credit for inteligence. If identified, I imagine that this traitor would suffer greatly for the outrageous views he presents in Common Sense, which strikes me as anything but common sense.My first objection to this dreadful work of literature is its blatant misuse of the Biblical reference to Samuel in the atempt to support its groundless claims. Granted, kings impose upon their subjects the danger of succumbing to idolatry only, of course, if the people seek aid from their king rather than from God. Such horrific temptation would surely justify the colonists cause. However, by comparing the colonists present situation to that of the Israelites, the author has made a serious blunder. As Gods chosen people, partakers of His original covenant, which rested upon obeying the Command ments, the Israelites commited an atrocious sin by asking for a human ruler rather than relying upon their God, who lived among them. Mankind now, by the Lords second covenant, stands upon the grace and salvation offered in Christ Jesus. The law stil applies, but under different circumstances, thus rendering it acceptable to live beneath the rule of a human king, so long as the heart and soul depend solely upon the King of kings.In addit ion, the coloquial language offends any... ...r litle about such things. What the author lacks in scriptural wisdom, therefore, he compensates for in more worldly knowledge for this, some credit must be due. Third, granted, when viewed with detachment, an island ruling a continent over such a prolonged expanse of ocean does appear quite ridiculous. However, t here exist bonds between the colonists and the European nations, from which they claim their heritage, that surpass al distances and circumstances.I am therefore inclined to conclude that eith er the colonists have gone completely mad over the last centu ry and a half, or circumstances have changed to such an extent that I can no longer deem my former home recognizable. In the former case, let my statements remain as they stand. In the later, alow me to stand corrected in accordance to the present circ umstances and condition of the American colonists.

American Colonists Essay -- American History Religion Essays

American Colonists You wil be amazed to learn that which has been occurring in the American colonies. Chaos reigns where once there existed reverence exasperation has displaced peace. Some wick ed force has corrupted the colonists hearts against their induce king and, indeed, against their own best interests as wel. Moreover, the fuel for this sinful fire, in a large part, emerges from a tiny pamphlet, writen anonymously and for this and li tle else, I give its author recognise for inteligence. If identified, I imagine that this traitor would suffer greatly for the dire views he presents in Common Sense, which strikes me as anything but common sense.My first objection to this terrific work of literature is its blatant misuse of the Biblical advert to Samuel in the atempt to support its groundless claims. Granted, kings impose upon their subjects the danger of succumbing to idolatry only, of course, if the people seek facilitate from their king rather than from God. Such horrific temptation would sure as shooting justify the colonists cause. However, by comparing the colonists present situation to that of the Israelites, the author has made a somber blunder. As Gods chosen people, partakers of His original covenant, which rest upon obeying the Commandments, the Israelites commited an atrocious sin by asking for a human ruler rather than relying upon their God, who lived among them. human race now, by the Lords second covenant, stands upon the grace and redemption offered in Christ Jesus. The law stil applies, but under different circumstances, thus rendering it bankable to live beneath the rule of a human king, so long as the heart and soul depend solely upon the King of kings.In addit ion, the coloquial wrangle offends any... ...r litle about such things. What the author lacks in scriptural wisdom, therefore, he compensates for in more worldly knowledge for this, some credit must be due. Third, granted, when viewed with detachment, an island judgement a continent over such a extensive expanse of ocean does appear quite ridiculous. However, t here exist bonds between the colonists and the European nations, from which they claim their heritage, that surpass al distances and circumstances.I am therefore inclined to conclude that either the colonists have gone completely mad over the decease centu ry and a half, or circumstances have changed to such an close that I can no longer deem my power home recognizable. In the former case, let my statements remain as they stand. In the later, alow me to stand change by reversal in accordance to the present circ umstances and condition of the American colonists. American Colonists Essay -- American History Religion EssaysAmerican Colonists You wil be amazed to learn that which has been occurring in the American colonies. Chaos reigns where once there existed reverence rage has displaced peace. Some wick ed force has corrupted the colonists hearts against thei r own king and, therefore, against their own best interests as wel. Moreover, the fuel for this sinful fire, in a large part, emerges from a tiny pamphlet, writen anonymously and for this and li tle else, I give its author credit for inteligence. If identified, I imagine that this traitor would suffer greatly for the outrageous views he presents in Common Sense, which strikes me as anything but common sense.My first objection to this dreadful work of literature is its blatant misuse of the Biblical reference to Samuel in the atempt to support its groundless claims. Granted, kings impose upon their subjects the danger of succumbing to idolatry only, of course, if the people seek aid from their king rather than from God. Such horrific temptation would surely justify the colonists cause. However, by comparing the colonists present situation to that of the Israelites, the author has made a serious blunder. As Gods chosen people, partakers of His original covenant, which rested upon ob eying the Commandments, the Israelites commited an atrocious sin by asking for a human ruler rather than relying upon their God, who lived among them. Mankind now, by the Lords second covenant, stands upon the grace and salvation offered in Christ Jesus. The law stil applies, but under different circumstances, thus rendering it acceptable to live beneath the rule of a human king, so long as the heart and soul depend solely upon the King of kings.In addit ion, the coloquial language offends any... ...r litle about such things. What the author lacks in scriptural wisdom, therefore, he compensates for in more worldly knowledge for this, some credit must be due. Third, granted, when viewed with detachment, an island ruling a continent over such a prolonged expanse of ocean does appear quite ridiculous. However, t here exist bonds between the colonists and the European nations, from which they claim their heritage, that surpass al distances and circumstances.I am therefore inclined to c onclude that either the colonists have gone completely mad over the last centu ry and a half, or circumstances have changed to such an extent that I can no longer deem my former home recognizable. In the former case, let my statements remain as they stand. In the later, alow me to stand corrected in accordance to the present circ umstances and condition of the American colonists.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Bei Dao’s Poem ‘An End or a Beginning’ Essay

Bei Daos meter An End or a Beginning depicts the sempiternal protestors murdered by the cruelty of the Cultural Revolution and the continuity of life in search of expect after many lives taken away. The loss of hope looked for In every dream after every day, reinforces the everlastingly hunt of freedom and end of the Cultural Revolution even though it feels just surface of grasp and the sacrifice to get there is unavoidable.The setting of the verse in nature where the trees, clouds and stars are, connotes the freedom of the bulge outdoors with no restrictions contrasting with the people living beneath the unnatural aggression of the Cultural Revolution. The destruction of the peoples freedom is shown in stanza one where someone protests desire the sun rises and A heavy shadow, like a road Sh on the whole run across the basis will destroy the pureness of ones courage. The sun is like a persons boldness to stand against the Cultural Revolution like the nature of the sun rising and the heavy shadow looming over the sun darkens the atmosphere covering all hope and demolishes it like how nature is corrupted by roads built for the selfishness of man.The repeated anticipation of hope can be seen even after the heinousness of oppression by the revolution. The personas personal response can be seen in stanza five to mark the search for the hope of new beginning. The repeating of I look for portray the things dreamed for all of which are beautiful images of nature which connote freedom and places of no boundaries. Contrasting this ideal illustration, the actual background with A heavy shadow, A sorrowing mist covered with wretched cigarette stubs all convey negative images of a worn area.The organise of the poem follows similar lines in each stanza except stanza 4 where the word towmen is on its own near the middle of the paragraph. The diction towmen used all solely in one line emphasizes how people are pulled and manipulated by the communists who control the Cultural Revolution. The Yellow River mentioned before the towmen shows how much impact the communists has had as the Yellow River is a very important river in China. By asking if even the ropes of the Yellow River can be controlled is like questioning how the manipulators could be so powerful. As the Poem comes to the end, the stanzas very slightly diminishes to allow the reader feel a less abrupt ending which relates to the sadness of a dying end.Death throughout the poem is constantly mentioned to illustrate its recurrence. Diction such as murdered, gone, forever all convey the permanent lost of lives which cannot be stopped only when only replaced and repeated due to the unforgiving violence of the Revolution. The hope of renewing the land can be seen in stanza six where Dao explains how fresh blood require to be shed in order to help rebuild the land and create new life and hope on tomorrows branches. Branches, relating to trees display an image of life and growth which p rovide The ripened fruit which would mean the country being able to feed and look after itself because of the lives killed to make the land fertile and grow.Repetition is used a lot in the poem. The repetition of Here I stand Replacing another, who has been murdered represent all the protestors who stood up against the Revolution, died and then replaced and killed again. This is used to exemplify the problem which gives people no other choice but to keep doing it because there is no other way out and hope which is only Stars which glimmer in the wind. Wind being a powerful source contrasts with the small glimmering stars which connote hope emphasize how there is little chance of survival.An End or a Beginning uses the strong image of nature to represent the freedom of which is natural with the dark spicy illustrations of clouds, mists and wind to convey the dark disasters of the Cultural revolution causing devastation and growing forests of gravestones ending lives where hope is al ready slim increasing loss.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

As sophocles observes in antigone Essay

4. Awareness (Greenleaf, 2002) Able servant-leaders are usu hardlyy sharply kindle and reasonably disturbed from integrated holistic perspectives, yet with inner serenity (Greenleaf, 2002). Habit 1 (of 7 or of 8), Being Pro get alon devote or the construct of Inside-Out, that any significant type of change in the would-be-leader must(prenominal) first come from within himself (Covey, 1900). 5. Persuasion (Greenleaf, 2002) Servant-leaders rely primarily on persuasion and on convincing even by way of group- expression consensus, rather than through coercion or force based on the traditional authoritarian model (Greenleaf, 2002). charm Gardner insists that Leadership is the process of persuasion or example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to pursue objectives held by the leader or divided up by the leader and his or her followers (Gardner, 1990). Yukl emphatic wholey stressed, in that influence is the essence of leadership (Yukl, 2001). 6. Conceptualization (Greenleaf, 2002) Servant-leaders perform a delicate balance amidst thinking out a problem and facing beyond day-to-day-focused-realities approach (Greenleaf, 2002).Habit 2 (of 7 or of 8), Beginning with the End in Mind, that the would-be-leader develops his own principled-center mission statement in life sentence with long-term goals (Covey, 1900). 7. Foresight (Greenleaf, 2002) Intuitive servant-leaders understand the lessons from the past, the realities of the present, and the likely consequence of a decision for the future (Greenleaf, 2002). Characteristic 1, They are Continually Learning, that the would-be-leaders perception is more than enough honed by his self-initiated desire to know it all (Covey, 1992) and kindred to Characteristic 6, They See Life As An bet on (Covey, 1992).Alfred North Whitehead strongly suggested, in that Every leader, to be effective, must simultaneously adhere to the symbols of change and revision and the symbols of tradition and stability (Warr en Bennis, 1995). 8. Stewardship (Greenleaf, 2002) Servant-leaders merely act as stewards or hold men and resources in trust for the good of all or for society, emphasizing openness and persuasion (Greenleaf, 2002), likewise very similar to Stewardship Delegation (Covey, 1900).Habit 3 (of 7 or of 8), Put First Things First, that the would-be-leaders effectiveness lies in making sure he balances his Production (P) with his building Production Capacity PC (Covey, 1900). Also, hence, according to Coveys classification, Stewardship is under Habit 3 (Covey, 1900). 9. Commitment to the Growth of People (Greenleaf, 2002) Servant-leaders are seriously amenable and deeply committed to the growth and nurturing of each individual worker within the institution (Greenleaf, 2002).Characteristic 2, They Are Service-Oriented, that the would-be-leader/ servant-leader regards his work as a vocation or a way of life and not as a career (Covey, 1992). Characteristic 4, They Believe In Other People, th at the would-be-leader is very hopeful for the beneficial potency capacity of everyone around him (Covey, 1992) though not quite far is Habit 8, It is about Finding Your Voice and Helping Others to Find Theirs (Covey, 2006). 10. Building Community (Greenleaf, 2002)Servant-leaders selflessly give themselves for building true communities among themselves who work within given institutions (Greenleaf, 2002). Characteristic 3, They Radiate Positive Energy, that the would-be-leader despite the drudgery of strengthening his institution, you could still find him cheerful, pleasant, joyous his attitude optimistic, positive, upbeat and his spirit enthusiastic, hopeful, believing. Therefore, with the above, Covey concluded, in that A (good) habit can be defined as the intersection of knowledge, skill and desire (Covey, 1900).Thus, with all of the above information, Sergeant Kidds dictum of soldiers learning to be good leaders from good leaders (Army, 1999) could now apply even to civilian employees or even ordinary civilians as more and more people are convinced through more and more pieces of literature pointing towards that thinning gray subject between military and civilian leaderships. Political leadership is what John W. Gardner in his On Leadership, espoused in that Men and women of the greatest integrity, character, and courage should turn to public life as a natural duty and a natural outlet for their talents (Gardner, 1990).While under championship leadership falls all the works of Covey, Bennis, Goldsmith, and Yukl however, noted are those other works by Frances Hesselbein and Retired US Army General Eric Shinsekis BE*KNOW*DO, Leadership the Army Way (Frances Hesselbein, 2004) and Jason Santamaria, Vincent Martino, and Eric Clemons The Marine army corps Way Using Maneuver Warfare to Lead a Winning Organization (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) because they believe that the business world could benefit from their shared experiences of the military.While the ci vilian sector regularly and easily pirates top executives from one private company to another or among themselves, the military sector cannot do that but because the military must so promote within its own ranks is why military leadership development is that paramount according to Hesselbein and Shinseki (Frances Hesselbein, 2004). Santamaria, Martino, and Climons first laid down the premise that although business and war are entirely worlds apart, the same principles apply to them because they both thrive in very competitive environments.The authors gave 23 true-to-life civilian examples followed by explanations forwards proceeding to compare and contrast 23 parallel true-to-life military examples (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). Like the non-original Servant-Leader Greenleaf with his 6th century BCE Tao Te Ching, the non-original Maneuver Warfare Santamaria has his more than 2,500 age ago genius and timelessness of Sun Tzus work The Art of War, especially in targeting critical vulne rabilities, surprise, focus, tempo (speed), and combined arms.The authors ask if they are very natural or universal laws of warfare however, because the concepts are intuitive to the greatest strategists, generals, and CEOs, the authors have endeavored to transform such intuition into a systematic problem-solving approach that the remainder of us can clearly grasp and then apply (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003).These authors interchangeably explained the 46 examples in detail the workings of the Marine Corps Way by compressing Maneuver Warfare through these not only 7, but 10 Guiding Principles which when implemented singly and shortly is very powerful, but all the more deadly when applied in subsets or as an integrated whole (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). When these spatial relationers are examined closely, potential businesses should achieve breakthrough results (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003).1. Targeting Critical Vulnerabilities (Jason A.Santamaria, 2003) To attack and to fleetly take a dvantage of the competitors weaknesses after thoroughly studying both the allied leaders group and the competitors situation (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 2. Boldness (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) When occasion arises to grab that opportunity to carry out calculated risks which can secure breakthrough results (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 3. Surprise (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Using surreptitiousness, vagueness, and sham to confuse the competitors.And for them to outrightly turn out their knowledge of the allied leaders group condition thereby prejudicing their capability to position well their assets against the allied leaders group (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 4. centralise (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Clustering unitedly the allied leaders group materiel at decisive places and times to take advantage of important favorable conditions to represent the allied leaders group needs and objectives (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 5. Decentralized Decision Making (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Designating responsible people for them to make their own judicious decisions nearest the activeness centers after they have timely and thoroughly assessed firsthand local information about the situation within the mission target area (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 6. Tempo (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Recognizing potential breaks, deciding, and executing plans more swiftly than opponents for the allied leaders group to grab the upper hand and relegate the enemy to always be on the defensive and always to be confused by the allied leaders group concerted and coordinated actions against the enemy (Jason A.Santamaria, 2003).7. Combined Arms (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) quantify the allied leaders group attack in such a way that his groups people, vehicles, equipment with pre-planned sequencing become orchestrated as only one entity whereas, if the allied leaders group use them singly, the effect will not be as dramatic (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 8. Integration of Principles (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) When measured individually, these concepts give the best results when implemented in subsets or all are treated collectively as only one whole (Jason A.Santamaria, 2003).9. reconnaissance mission Pull (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Reconnaissance crook is an illustration of implementing the concepts in subsets the unintended reaction is an actual time happening to a golden chance to weaken or defeat the enemy, whereby when the fortuity is afforded to the allied leader to surprise the enemy, that leader then familiarizes the greater organization towards the situation, with him assuming that leadership function in setting up and applying the attack.Reconnaissance pull covers four of maneuver warfares ten concepts decentralized decision-making, targeting critical vulnerabilities, tempo, and focus (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003). 10. Full Integration (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003) Joining simultaneously all ten concepts together as one combined entity allows the person to eff ect the greatest outcome with much reduced cost of materiel (Jason A. Santamaria, 2003).

Saturday, May 25, 2019

A Day in the Life of a Teacher Essay

I hear the sound of my alarm clock at 630am. Time to get up I wish it was Saturday, no school No, Im not a child, nor a student, but a t each(prenominal)er You dont think we enjoy e rattling(prenominal)day at work, do you? No. Thats rubbish. Let me continue with my story of a day in the life of a teacher.As I force myself come forward of bed, a chilling thought comes over me. Its Wednesday. This means I still ready three whole days to get through until the week bar. weaken get a move on if I want to sword it on time. First, I develop a shower. I do this every sunup to liven myself up and to prepare for the day ahead of me. Today first up we have a whole school assembly. Thats one argue why I dont like Wednesdays. The other few reasons I particularly dont like the day Wednesday is that I have recess yard indebtedness and in the afternoon is the paper parade.I step go forth of the shower, thinking such thoughts of what has been happening in the last few days and what I have t o do today. I get dressed and go out to have breakfast. Mmm, I like breakfast, my last chance in the morning to relax and not think about work, but it eventually creeps into my head anyway. Once I am finished I commend and organize, well I try to remember and organize everything that I pass on need. Which is a lot.When I arrive at school, about 10 to 8 I park, load up my stuff and walk to the front office. In the staff room I have a social chat to the other teachers, we rebuke about assembly, prepare our coffee or tea and get ready to leave. With a mug in one hand, handbag and everything else in the other, we back onto the staff admission and out the front office. You shtup always tell a new teacher, they havent got the art of getting out the staff door in the morning perfected yet. I make my way to descriptor avoiding the students and setup and wait in the class until the bell goes at half chivalric 8.Outside the kids are eagerly waiting to be let inside, like a pack of pu ppies waiting for you to open the door just so they can jump all over you with their muddy paws. What do they eat, must be something like froot-loops. Which would explain not just the sugar rush but a for a few others something else too. As soon as we are all in class, which doesnt take long, I give announcements and ask the class to take their chairs to assembly.When we arrive I round up my class, and once everyone is seated its time to go home. I wish Though it is about 20minutes later. At the beginning of every assembly we stand and sing the national anthem. Which doesnt sound like an anthem at all. Instead of sounding like we are proud and free, its sung in a droning tone. When we sit down I shush all the chatters and the assembly begins. As a teacher its our duty to listen to what is happening around the school while also keeping a small eye, quite like a hawks, on the class. We all ordinarily sit back, act interested and see all the small things that go on.Like the two kids w ho like each other keep pretending to envision around the room but are really trying to catch a smile. Then there are the bad kids, who are trying to make peashooters and all the usual blabbermouths who cant even wait until recess to talk. Since this assembly is so boring and I am bored I will go over, grab the troublemakers and sit them next to me. The rest of assembly goes on like this and is pretty much a huge waste of time and effort. At the end we ask our class to move off. We head off and back to class, when we are all finally in class I give out a quick spelling test. Its really a time waster and a fill in until recess. When the bell goes I think of how clear it will be to relax in the staff room. Then a student comes up and mentions something about handing a form in today, Wednesday. It hits me whence that I have to do.. yard duty. Out I go, trying to avoid the smaller kids who seem to want to follow me around, some even cling my leg.At the end of recess I have a 5minute break in the staff room. Some break I quickly get a drink and then hear the bell, time to go to class. Back in class its maths time. Everyone lines up, and then I tell him or her to go inside. I ask my class to sit on the mat after about 10minutes and 2 disagreements everyone is seated. I have release time so I wait for the principal to come, because he is taking over my class. Release time, although it is called release is a time where we just do things that arent done yet. Like marking work, writing a program, or putting together all the things we need to. I have reports to write, since it is the end of the term.There are a few simple things to do when writing reports to make the process as simple, easy and stress free as possible. First sort out the kids. Theres the good, the bad and the in among. The in between are really good kids, which you personally dont like and torture for the fun of it. Then write a set paragraph for each of the groups, with 3-5 different wordings, which really mean the same thing. Once children are categorized the fun begins. Comment after comment is inserted into the report, but when I feel that a student stands out, I add my own personal touch. Two words -Be creative. After report writing I have to mark work, this is a very slow and boring process. After a few minutes a fellow teacher of mine comes into the computer room to tell me that the Principal has left hand for a meeting and I will have to go back and take my class, even though there is only 10minutes until the lunch bell rings.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Evolution of Detective Fiction Essay

Twenty-first century research worker stories are blooming with achievement, conflict, mystery and so on. But this is only late expandment. There is a lot more to it than some people think. From a French man named Vidocq to the creation of modern police detective fiction by Edgar Allan Poe, until straightaways development of detective stories and its characters. So what made Poe such an important figure in detective fiction hi chronicle, and in what way did his creation develop after his death? In my study I volition try to answer these questions to the best of my capabilities.People started to take interest in evil stories in the early 1800, ca utilise by their fascination and fear of crime. It was the town folks that started to romanticize criminals, as well those who stood up against them The first writing on urban crime pretended to be documentary, merely it was filled with archetypes and plots from preceding fiction, particularly the gothic novel (Marling 2). The detect ive as a figure first saw dismount in the early nineteenth century. Eugne Franois Vidocq who is considered to be the father of modern criminology and the first private detective wrote Memoirs of Vidocq which inspired writers like Viktor Hugos Les Misrables and Honor de Balzacs Le Pere Goriot in creating first of legion(predicate) detective figures based on Vidocq. Of course there were other writers, non just crime stories but novels as well, to whom Vidocq deal outd as an inspiration. A good example to this is Charles Dickens novel Great Expectations.The main and most important difference between the earlier mentioned crime stories and Poes Murders in the Rue Morgue is that they didnt construct their story/case around the detectives Before Poe, the early crime stories did not revolve around the someone detective (freewebs editor 3). Crime Fiction is essentially about the solving of a crime, usually a mystery of murder. Crime Fiction texts question what it is to be human and rai se questions about identity. (freewebs editor 1) When Poe created Dupin, most of his very own marks were given to the character. Since Poe himself didnt believe in the supernatural n all did Dupin, giving him a far more realistic view of things, which I believe essentially gave the detective a big step ahead of others when solving a case. In The Murders in the Rue Morgue Poe introduces three of the basic motifs of detective fiction. First is the wrongly suspected man, secondly the crime in the closed room and ultimately the solution by unexpected means. It is also important to note the Dupin outsmarts the police by solving the case, which is an element that if not all but certainly most detective stories adopted.In The Purloined Letter the reader gets to know another favored element of the detective fiction recovery and safe keeping of the document(s) necessary to ensure the safety of one or more important individuals. In format to rag sure Dupin succeeds in this task, Poe intro duces yet again important motifs cognize to the detective fiction the outsmartingdeceiving of other genius minds, the finding of the evidence in the most obvious place and the use of disguise. Although the element of disguise might not seem so evident at first reading, I am most certain that the use of the green spectacles in order to cheat on Dserves as an early version of using clothing or other accessories in order to misguide another character. In the third story of Dupin, The Mystery of Marie Rogt, Poe introduces the method of recreating a crime by recollecting and displace together newspaper reports of the same case. man Poes greatest detective fiction will be the ones presenting Dupin, we must take a step in taking in to notice Poes other two kit and boodle Thou Art the Man and The Gold Bug readers are familiarized with new motifs from the repertory of detective fiction the criminals spirit breaks and confesses when he is faced with the exorbitance of his crime, misguid ance by following the wrong clues and the climaxing moment when that the criminal is the least likely suspected person.And of course all five stories obligate the common unexpected result which was common to gothic novels in Poes time. We must not forget however that there were a few other detective stories in which Dupin makes his demeanor even though they werent written by Poe. Such stories are like The Vanished Treasure and The Fires in the Rue St. Honor which appeared in a order of seven short stories by the publisher Mycroft & Moran, The Murder of Edgar Allen Poe by George Egon Hatvary, etc. The interesting fact about most of these stories in which Dupin makes an appearance is that he either meets or gets regarded as being Poe himself Just as Vidocq in his own time, Poes writings served as role model for the new detective fiction, but unlike Poe who introduced the reader to a new type, a reformed detective story, the new generation of writers kept and used the new motifs an d elements which Poe created. None other could serve as a better example for this than the most widely known detective in world,namely Sir Arthur Conan Doyles Sherlock Holmes. In my personal touch sensation Holmes serves as the best comparison to Dupin.They represent the perfect rivals in what Id like to call whos the better detective. In order to make my point in why Dupin is the superior Ill point out a few of their similarities. First and most likely observed by all readers that both detectives are presented by a narrator who just happens to be their best friend. Like Dupin, Holmes uses cold logic in the solving of the cases. While todays detectives seem to be more calm and appear to have part in way more action, Dupin and Holmes isolate themselves, they are eccentric, or so egoistic and they both bang smoking the pipe. But most importantly in their stories the focus is on the case and the solving of the puzzle rather than putting the main protagonists in the middle of the act ion. While few say that Holmes is a copy of Dupin, most would consider Holmes to be the perfected version of his superior.In A Study in Scarlett Holmes sidekick Dr. Watson makes a comparison between the two detectives Now, in my opinion, Dupin was a very inferior fellow He had some analytical genius, no doubt but he was by no means such a phenomenon as Poe appeared to imagine.(Doyle 24). I believe that most important trait of Dupin that separates him from the other detectives is that he wasnt exactly a role model for the mentally stable. This of course is the effect of the loss of his inheritance. While Holmes himself wasnt the charming cordial of fellow one might choose as friend(he was addicted to cocaine, stayed up for hours walking around or playing on his violin, making smelly chemical substance experiments and he even fired off his gone sometimes), his bad habits were of his choosing and making so it wasnt nearly as bad as Dupins case. Of course Holmes isnt the only one to b e created in Dupins image. Hercule Poirot created by Agatha Christie in one of the characters on which Dupin had a huge impact.In the 20th century the detective fictions have considerably changed in the way they are seen. This of course is due to the new generation. Most of the younger generation lack the imagination to fully understand and enjoy such works as The Murders In The Rue Morgue or Sherlock Holmes due to the fact that they lack action. Todays generation is used to all the constant action and violence thanks to TV and PC games. So as these factors changed societyentertainment industries took on new elements. Since recent geezerhood havent produced any film adaptations about Dupin, Ill have to stick with Sherlock Holmes. The new movie, while still being a detective story, can be easily put into the genre of action.Consider the movie to be most enjoyable despite the fact that it completely lost the give-and-takes magic. With all its stunning visuals and extreme action scen es it is hard for me to find it anything nearly as the book. I believe that the only thing which is kept in it is Holmes himself. Holmes remained the same seemingly mad but genius and efficient detective I got to like from the book while Watson became a 19th century action hero. One must know the detective fiction motifs in order to identify them in the movie, but I assure that they are present.In conclusion, detective fiction is a genre still under development, since new elements are only starting to emerge and all is thanks to the drastic change of applied science and way of thinking. But this doesnt mean that it will surely develop in a positive way. There are way too many factors that play a part in it, however we take our part in preserving the bases of this great genre and putting our own ideas to it in while to make it even greater. But this is question only time will answer and the people who work on it.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

In Discipline and Punish, Michel Foucault analyzes the emergence of disciplinary practices

In Discipline & Punish, Michel Foucault analyzes the emergence of disciplinary practices, as they be understood in modern schools, militaries, and prisons. Foucault understands the manifestations of modern disciplines in terms of a power- companionship relationship. In Discipline & Punish he makes a change in his method of thinking roughly power-knowledge relations in using a genealogical method. The basic premise of the genealogical approach is that shifts of power in society alter the way knowledge is formed in society.Foucaults specific focus in the genealogical framework provide be on the interrelation of non-discursive practices ( make of bodies) and discursive practices (bodies of knowledge). In focusing on bodies of knowledge and the controlling of bodies Foucault shows how the greatest difference in the Modern progress of disciplines and the Classical Age is that Modern society is engulfed in disciplinary practices. Foucault believes that there is a misunderstanding by s cholars when studying the history of discipline and punishment in the West.The misunderstanding is thinking that there is a progress in the way we fragility criminals, or deviants, in compared with the forms of punishment used in the Classical Age. In order to view this misunderstanding Foucault begins Discipline & Punish with a horrific object lesson of public torture that was commonplace treatment of a criminal in the Classical Age, which immediately provokes the reader to feel that the Modern Age has accomplished explicit progress.However, Foucault claims that progress from a humanist perspective in relation to Modern discipline and punishment would not be spotless but, progress in being able to consummate punishment with the same intensity of the Classical Age and not dismay the negative reaction that people had towards the public torture is a more than accurate picture. Foucault claims that Modern societies aim has been not to punish less, but to punish better. The best model of punishing better has taken place in the Modern prison house.In the Prison the Modern Age changed its aims in punishing the criminal and these aims have carried over into the many disciplines of society. Foucault defines some of those differences in Modern discipline practices that culminate in the prison, but are unlimited in their reach upon society. The first difference is the object of control is no longer focused on the mind, but is more concerned with the body. An example of this is the vast apparatus of the Modern Prison that maintains a cell for each inmate to be placed.The Modern Prison is obsessed with the localization principle of the body, rather than the anterior disciplinary techniques in which the foremost concern was ones ideas. This modern obsession with controlling the body in the Modern Prison is also cave in in the military apparatus. For example, the barracks or bases are unfeigned to locate the troops in a specific location and keep them from mixi ng with the outside population. The earlier days when one was called from his house to go out to battle is eradicated by making soldiers subject to a specific location.The second area of development in Modern disciplinary practices is the control of details of specific bodily movements. The control of details of specific bodily movements is most clearly exemplified in the example of the Panopticon that Foucault gives in Discipline & Punish. One of the main characteristics of the Panopticon was to be able to constantly supervise the movements of each prisoner. The culture was to supervise the prisoner, while not allowing the prisoner to see the supervisor.This resulted in the prisoner constantly being informed of each little movement he made because there was always the possibility of being watched. The spread of the form of control of detail into other(a) disciplinary institutions is substantially seen in the school when teachers become concerned with the way in which theyre stu dents write or their posture in the classroom. The schoolmaster is no longer as concerned with the fact that the student can read and write, as he is with the way in which the pupils perform their task.The terzetto object of focus by modern disciplines that Foucault suggests is new in the Modern Age is the concern with the process of carrefourion rather than just the product itself. The goal in the third mechanism is to exercise control over the complete production of an act instead of just the result of the act. The Modern Prison exemplifies this when it keeps a record of the prisoners movements or affect. The fact that the prisoner does not break the rules is secondary too the way he goes about not breaking the rules. The control of processes is easily seen in the Modern economy.The Modern wage laborer is prescribed a code of ethics, timetable, and a contract. All of the later are mechanisms that concern the production of the product rather than the product itself. It does not m atter if one is able to produce a product if does not fit within the proscribed process. The result of the control of the body, the details of bodily movements, and the process of production is the docile body. In order to achieve the function of rendering the docile body the Modern Age has developed distinctive mechanisms.The first of the mechanisms that Foucault mentions that are put in place to achieve a docile body is the ranked Observations. Foucault locates the model of this method in the Benthams Panopticon. The Panopticon has a tower to be located in the middle of transparent cells, which form around the tower itself. The supervisor is to be able to see any prisoner at any time without the prisoner being aware that they are being watched. Foucault claims this gives the body a specific space of subjection and makes the prisoner constantly aware of there position.The Panopticon re deports a change from the Classical Age of placing prisoners in dark dungeons and makes use o f the light of a constant gaze. The hospital is an example of how the mechanism of the Hierarchal Observation spreads from the prison model into other social spaces. Foucault talks about the care that went into the new architecture of the hospital that allowed for the patients to be easily viewed, it separated them from other patients, and had a separate ventilation system that was organized for each patient to avoid the spread of germs.The hospital was no longer the overseer of death, but a whole apparatus of therapeutic mechanisms. In both the Modern Prison and the hospital, the body and its movements became the target rather than the mind. The mechanism of Hierarchal Observation lays the grounding for Normalizing Judgment, which is another distinctive mechanism of the Modern Age. The mechanism of Normalizing Judgment is to be able to focus in on the errors of a given behavior in order to clean up the behavior. The process of Normalizing Judgment allows for codes to be establishe d that can be placed next to the Law and Tradition.The emergence of Normalizing Judgment could be seen in the Modern Prison when the prisoners are subjected to a rigid schedule of prayer, exercise, and pedagogy. The prisoner was to stay within the norms or be judged. The Classical Age was concerned with revenge of the victim, whereas the Modern Age is concerned specifically with the criminal as a deviant or abnormal person. Foucault recognizes the spread of Normalizing Judgment in the rise of the standardized education. Examples of standardized education would be medical schools or law schools.These schools established the general norms of health and law. Thus, if someone deviates from the norm they subject themselves to space where it is appropriate for one to visit the psychologist to get help and on to the many other possible reformist mechanism. The mechanism of Normalizing Judgment enables the framework for the third mechanism, the Examination, to be developed. The Examination is a type of conspiracy of the latter two mechanisms into what Foucault calls the normalizing gaze. This can be seen in the prison as when the prisoner is aware of being visible and the norms simultaneously.It is as if one knows how they should act and that they will be constantly held accountable through observation. The school examination is a further elaboration of this technique used in the prison. The student is constantly check to make sure they are in order with the norm by a written or oral examination. The function of the school examination provides the read same function of the prison examination, but in a new social space. The mechanisms of the Hierarchal Observation, Normalizing Judgment, and Examination ensure that the docile body is achieved.The mechanisms of docility are present throughout the entire stratum of society. Although the Modern disciplinary practices developed in the isolated space of the prison they have spread throughout society into schools, hospit als, factories, courts, and various other spaces. These disciplinary practiced do not just locate the normal form of behavior, but also act as a official force of knowledge. The mechanisms achieve the docile body that allow for the coding of the individual of any given knowledge.A clue to just how vast disciplinary practices are in the Modern Age is the disappearance of the outlaw, which is now taken up with the deviant. There is no way to get outside the law, but one remains in a deviant form that is located within the disciplinary space. There is no escaping the mechanisms of power throughout society, as mechanisms of power-knowledge will continue to flourish in many different transformations. However, by not mistaking these transformations as necessary for progress and getting the mechanism to operate in your favor, one can achieve real progress.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Racism: African American Races Essay

A social problem is a condition that at least some battalion in a community view as being undesirable. A big social problem in the existence told would have to be racism. Some say that racism doesnt exist but it does. Racism is a very strong word to use I have to say, but there have been a lot of unfairness and discriminations throughout the years in America. Which is what makes me interested in this topic the unfairness people receive from other people because the color of their skin. Some people I be intimate have experienced unfair acts because of the content of their skin. Many people know that racism has occurred in the past when African Americans were treated unfairly being segregated from the opposite race. But most of that changed when people began to fight for equal rights having boycotts, protests, and systematically having those individuals who were racist know that they deserved equal rights as well as they did.And until they receive seriousice they were going to hav e their voices heard to receive fairishice. Racism is just with black people its with everybody. Any race can try anything, but there are still going to be those people who just converse with each other about other races. Its definitely not only the Caucasian race its basically every race. The black race makes fun of the Caucasian and Latino races. The Latino race makes fun of the Caucasian and African American races. Everybody talks about everybody although it is not right I dont cogitate that it will ever stop. I feel there should be a end to it simply because everybody is equal whether we want to believe it or not. So a stop to racism is a must it needs to happen now.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Angels Demons Chapter 126-129

126Cardinal Mortati knew there were no address in any language that could swallow added to the mystery of this moment. The allay of the vision over St. Peters Squ ar sing louder than any chorus of angels.As he stared up at Camerlegno Ventresca, Mortati matt-up the paralyzing collision of his imaget and mind. The vision seemed real, tangible. And yet how could it be? Ein truthone had seen the camerlegno get in the helicopter. They had all told witnessed the ball of light in the sky. And forthwith, somehow, the camerlegno stood high above them on the pileustop terrace. Transported by angels? Reincarnated by the hand of beau ideal?This is impossibleMortatis heart wanted nonhing more(prenominal) than to count, only when his mind cried out for reason. And yet all around him, the cardinals stared up, obviously seeing what he was seeing, paralyzed with wonder.It was the camerlegno. in that respect was no mistrust. But he looked diametric somehow. Divine. As if he had been p urified. A spirit? A man? His white flesh shone in the spotlights with an incorporeal weightlessness.In the square there was crying, cheering, spontaneous applause. A group of nuns fell to their knees and wailed saetas. A pulsing grew from in the crowd. shortly, the full(a) square was pitch contour the camerlegnos name. The cardinals, some with tears rolling work through their faces, joined in. Mortati looked around him and tried and true to comprehend. Is this really happening?Camerlegno Carlo Ventresca stood on the rooftop terrace of St. Peters Basilica and looked down over the multitudes of people staring up at him. Was he awake or stargaze? He entangle transformed, otherworldly. He wondered if it was his automobile trunk or fair(a) his spirit that had floated down from heaven toward the soft, darkened expanse of the Vatican city Gardens alighting wish well a profound angel on the deserted lawns, his black parachute shrouded from the madness by the towering shadow of St. Peters Basilica. He wondered if it was his body or his spirit that had possessed the qualification to climb the ancient Stairway of Medallions to the rooftop terrace where he now stood.He felt as light as a ghost.Although the people below were chanting his name, he knew it was not him they were cheering. They were cheering from impulsive joy, the equal winning of joy he felt every day of his life as he pondered the Almighty. They were experiencing what separately of them had always hankered for an assurance of the beyond a substantiation of the power of the Creator.Camerlegno Ventresca had prayed all his life for this moment, and still, even he could not fathom that paragon had found a way to make it manifest. He wanted to cry out to them. Your God is a living God Behold the miracles all around youHe stood there a while, numb and yet feeling more than he had ever felt. When, at last, the spirit moved him, he bowed his head and stepped underpin from the edge. entirely now, he knelt on the roof, and prayed.127The images around him blurred, drifting in and out. Langdons eye slowly began to focus. His legs ached, and his body felt like it had been run over by a truck. He was lying on his side on the ground. Something stunk, like bile. He could still hear the incessant sound of lapping water. It no longer sounded peaceful to him. There were other sounds too talking close around him. He saw blurry white forms. Were they all wearing white? Langdon decided he was any in an asylum or heaven. From the burning in his throat, Langdon decided it could not be heaven.Hes finished vomiting, one man said in Italian. Turn him. The instance was firm and professional.Langdon felt hands slowly rolling him onto his put up. His head swam. He tried to sit up, hardly the hands gently forced him back down. His body submitted. Then Langdon felt someone going through his pockets, removing items.Then he passed out cold.Dr. Jacobus was not a religious man the science of med icine had bred that from him long ago. And yet, the events in Vatican City tonight had put his systematic logic to the test. this instant bodies are falling from the sky?Dr. Jacobus felt the pulse of the bedraggled man they had just pulled from the Tiber River. The doctor decided that God himself had hand-delivered this one to safety. The concussion of hitting the water had knocked the victim unconscious, and if it had not been for Jacobus and his crew stand out on the shore notice the spectacle in the sky, this falling soul would surely have gone unnoticed and drowned.e Americano, a declare said, going through the mans wallet after they pulled him to change land.American? Romans often joked that Americans had gotten so abundant in Rome that hamburgers should become the dispatchicial Italian food. But Americans falling from the sky? Jacobus flicked a penlight in the mans eyes, examen his dilation. Sir? Can you hear me? Do you know where you are?The man was unconscious again. Jacobus was not surprised. The man had vomited a lot of water after Jacobus had performed CPR.Si chiama Robert Langdon, the nurse said, reading the mans drivers license.The group assembled on the dock all stopped short.Impossibile Jacobus declared. Robert Langdon was the man from the television the American professor who had been helping the Vatican. Jacobus had seen Mr. Langdon, only minutes ago, getting into a helicopter in St. Peters Square and flying miles up into the air. Jacobus and the others had run out to the dock to witness the antimatter explosion a tremendous sphere of light like nothing any of them had ever seen. How could this be the same manIts him the nurse exclaimed, brushing his soaked hair back. And I recognize his tweed coatSuddenly someone was yelling from the hospital entryway. It was one of the patients. She was screaming, going mad, holding her portable radio to the sky and praising God. Apparently Camerlegno Ventresca had just miraculously appeared on the roof of the Vatican.Dr. Jacobus decided, when his shift got off at 8 A.M., he was going straight to church.The lights over Langdons head were brighter now, sterile. He was on some kind of examination table. He smelled astringents, strange chemicals. Someone had just given him an injection, and they had removed his raiment.Definitely not gypsies, he decided in his semiconscious delirium. Aliens, perhaps? Yes, he had heard active(predicate) things like this. Fortunately these beings would not h sleeve him. alone they wanted were his Not on your life Langdon sat bolt upright, eyes flying open.Attento one of the creatures yelled, stabilize him. His badge read Dr. Jacobus. He looked remarkably human.Langdon stammered, I thoughtEasy, Mr. Langdon. Youre in a hospital.The fog began to lift. Langdon felt a wave of relief. He hated hospitals, but they certainly beat aliens harvesting his testicles.My name is Dr. Jacobus, the man said. He explained what had just happened. You are very luc ky to be alive.Langdon did not feel lucky. He could notwithstanding make grit of his own memories the helicopter the camerlegno. His body ached everywhere. They gave him some water, and he rinsed out his mouth. They placed a new gauze on his palm.Where are my clothes? Langdon asked. He was wearing a paper robe. unmatched of the nurses motioned to a dripping wad of shredded khaki and tweed on the counter. They were soaked. We had to cut them off you.Langdon looked at his shredded Harris tweed and frowned.You had some Kleenex in your pocket, the nurse said.It was then that Langdon saw the ravaged shreds of parchment clinging all over the lining of his jacket. The folio from Galileos Diagramma. The last model on earth had just dissolved. He was too numb to know how to react. He just stared.We deliver your personal items. She held up a plastic bin. Wallet, camcorder, and pen. I dried the camcorder off the best I could.I dont own a camcorder.The nurse frowned and held out the bin. La ngdon looked at the contents. Along with his wallet and pen was a footling Sony RUVI camcorder. He recalled it now. Kohler had handed it to him and asked him to give it to the media.We found it in your pocket. I think youll need a new one, though. The nurse flipped open the two-inch screen on the back. Your spectator pump is cracked. Then she brightened. The sound still works, though. Barely. She held the device up to her ear. Keeps playing something over and over. She listened a moment and then scowled, handing it to Langdon. Two guys arguing, I think.Puzzled, Langdon took the camcorder and held it to his ear. The phonates were pinched and metallic, but they were discernible. One close. One far away. Langdon recognized them both.Sitting there in his paper gown, Langdon listened in amazement to the conversation. Although he couldnt see what was happening, when he heard the shocking finale, he was thankful he had been spared the visual.My GodAs the conversation began playing again from the beginning, Langdon lowered the camcorder from his ear and sat in appalled mystification. The antimatter the helicopter Langdons mind now kicked into gear.But that meansHe wanted to vomit again. With a rising fury of disorientation and rage, Langdon got off the table and stood on shaky legs.Mr. Langdon the doctor said, nerve-racking to stop him.I need some clothes, Langdon demanded, feeling the draft on his rear from the backless gown.But, you need to rest.Im checking out. Now. I need some clothes.But, sir, you NowEveryone interchange bewildered looks. We have no clothes, the doctor said. Perhaps tomorrow a friend could bring you some.Langdon drew a slow patient breath and locked eyes with the doctor. Dr. Jacobus, I am walking out your door right now. I need clothes. I am going to Vatican City. One does not go to Vatican City with ones ass hanging out. Do I make myself clear?Dr. Jacobus swallowed hard. Get this man something to wear.When Langdon limped out of Hospital Ti berina, he felt like an overgrown sonny boy Scout. He was wearing a blue paramedics jumpsuit that zipped up the front and was adorned with cloth badges that apparently depicted his numerous qualifications.The woman accompanying him was compact and wore a similar suit. The doctor had assured Langdon she would get him to the Vatican in record time.Molto traffico, Langdon said, reminding her that the area around the Vatican was packed with cars and people.The woman looked unconcerned. She pointed proudly to one of her patches. Sono conducente di ambulanza.Ambulanza? That explained it. Langdon felt like he could use an ambulance ride.The woman led him around the side of the building. On an outcropping over the water was a cement deck where her fomite sat waiting. When Langdon saw the vehicle he stopped in his tracks. It was an aging medevac chopper. The hull read Aero-Ambulanza.He hung his head.The woman smiled. Fly Vatican City. Very fast.128The College of Cardinals mordacious with ebullience and electricity as they streamed back into the Sistine Chapel. In contrast, Mortati felt in himself a rising confusion he thought might lift him off the floor and carry him away. He believed in the ancient miracles of the Scriptures, and yet what he had just witnessed in person was something he could not possibly comprehend. After a lifetime of devotion, seventy-nine years, Mortati knew these events should ignite in him a pious exuberance a fervent and living faith. And yet all he felt was a growing spectral unease. Something did not feel right.Signore Mortati a Swiss Guard yelled, running down the hall. We have gone to the roof as you asked. The camerlegno is flesh He is a true man He is not a spirit He is exactly as we knew himDid he speak to you?He kneels in dense prayer We are afraid to touch himMortati was at a loss. Tell him his cardinals await.Signore, because he is a man the guard hesitated.What is it?His chest he is burned. Should we bind his wounds? He must be in pain.Mortati considered it. Nothing in his lifetime of service to the church had prepared him for this situation. He is a man, so serve him as a man. Bathe him. Bind his wounds. Dress him in fresh robes. We await his arrival in the Sistine Chapel.The guard ran off.Mortati headed for the chapel. The rest of the cardinals were inside now. As he walked down the hall, he saw Vittoria Vetra slumped alone on a bench at the foot of the Royal Staircase. He could see the pain and loneliness of her loss and wanted to go to her, but he knew it would have to wait. He had work to do although he had no idea what that work could possibly be.Mortati entered the chapel. There was a riotous excitement. He closed the door. God help me.Hospital Tiberinas twin-rotor Aero-Ambulanza circled in behind Vatican City, and Langdon clenched his teeth, swearing to God this was the very last helicopter ride of his life.After convincing the pilot that the rules governing Vatican airspace were the least of the Vaticans concerns right now, he guided her in, unseen, over the rear wall, and landed them on the Vaticans helipad.Grazie, he said, lowering himself painfully onto the ground. She blew him a kiss and quickly took off, disappearing back over the wall and into the night.Langdon exhaled, essay to clear his head, hoping to make sense of what he was about to do. With the camcorder in hand, he boarded the same golf cart he had ridden earlier that day. It had not been charged, and the battery-meter registered close to empty. Langdon drove without headlights to conserve power.He in any case preferred no one see him flood tide.At the back of the Sistine Chapel, Cardinal Mortati stood in a daze as he watched the pandemonium before him.It was a miracle one of the cardinals shouted. The work of GodYes others exclaimed. God has make His entrust manifestThe camerlegno will be our Pope another shouted. He is not a cardinal, but God has sent a miraculous supportYes someone agreed. The laws of conclave are mans laws. Gods will is before us I call for a balloting immediatelyA balloting? Mortati demanded, moving toward them. I believe that is my job.Everyone turned.Mortati could sense the cardinals studying him. They seemed distant, at a loss, offended by his sobriety. Mortati longed to feel his heart swept up in the miraculous exultation he saw in the faces around him. But he was not. He felt an inexplicable pain in his soul an aching sadness he could not explain. He had vowed to guide these proceedings with purity of soul, and this hesitancy was something he could not deny.My friends, Mortati said, stepping to the altar. His voice did not seem his own. I suspect I will flake for the rest of my days with the meaning of what I have witnessed tonight. And yet, what you are suggesting regarding the camerlegno it cannot possibly be Gods will.The room fell silent.How can you say that? one of the cardinals finally demanded. The camerlegno saved the church. God spoke to the came rlegno directly The man survived death itself What sign do we needThe camerlegno is coming to us now, Mortati said. Let us wait. Let us hear him before we have a balloting. There may be an explanation.An explanation?As your Great Elector, I have vowed to uphold the laws of conclave. You are no doubt aware that by Holy Law the camerlegno is ineligible for election to the papacy. He is not a cardinal. He is a priest a chamberlain. There is also the question of his inadequate age. Mortati felt the stares hardening. By even allowing a balloting, I would be requesting that you endorse a man who Vatican Law proclaims ineligible. I would be enquire each of you to break a sacred oath.But what happened here tonight, someone stammered, it certainly transcends our lawsDoes it? Mortati boomed, not even knowing now where his words were coming from. Is it Gods will that we discard the rules of the church? Is it Gods will that we abandon reason and give ourselves over to frenzy?But did you not se e what we saw? another challenged angrily. How can you bear to question that kind of powerMortatis voice bellowed now with a resonance he had neer known. I am not questioning Gods power It is God who gave us reason and circumspection It is God we serve by exercising prudence129In the hallway outside the Sistine Chapel, Vittoria Vetra sat benumbed on a bench at the foot of the Royal Staircase. When she saw the figure coming through the rear door, she wondered if she were seeing another spirit. He was bandaged, limping, and wearing some kind of medical suit.She stood unable to believe the vision. Ro bert?He never answered. He strode directly to her and wrapped her in his arms. When he pressed his lips to hers, it was an impulsive, longing kiss filled with thankfulness.Vittoria felt the tears coming. Oh, God oh, thank GodHe kissed her again, more passionately, and she pressed against him, losing herself in his embrace. Their bodies locked, as if they had known each other for years. S he forgot the fear and pain. She closed her eyes, weightless in the moment.It is Gods will someone was yelling, his voice echoing in the Sistine Chapel. Who but the chosen one could have survived that diabolical explosion?Me, a voice reverberated from the back of the chapel.Mortati and the others turned in wonder at the bedraggled form coming up the center aisle. Mr. Langdon?Without a word, Langdon walked slowly to the front of the chapel. Vittoria Vetra entered too. Then two guards go in, pushing a cart with a large television on it. Langdon waited while they plugged it in, facing the cardinals. Then Langdon motioned for the guards to leave. They did, closing the door behind them.Now it was only Langdon, Vittoria, and the cardinals. Langdon plugged the Sony RUVIs output into the television. Then he pressed Play.The television blared to life.The scene that materialized before the cardinals revealed the Popes office. The video had been awkwardly filmed, as if by hidden tv camera. d espatch center on the screen the camerlegno stood in the dimness, in front of a fire. Although he appeared to be talking directly to the camera, it quickly became evident that he was verbalize to someone else whoever was making this video. Langdon told them the video was filmed by Maximilian Kohler, the director of CERN. Only an hour ago Kohler had secretly recorded his meeting with the camerlegno by using a tiny camcorder covertly mounted under the arm of his wheelchair.Mortati and the cardinals watched in bewilderment. Although the conversation was already in progress, Langdon did not bother to rewind. Apparently, whatever Langdon wanted the cardinals to see was coming upda Vinci Vetra kept diaries? the camerlegno was saying. I suppose that is good news for CERN. If the diaries contain his processes for creating antimatter They dont, Kohler said. You will be relieved to know those processes died with Leonardo. However, his diaries spoke of something else. You.The camerlegno loo ked troubled. I dont understand.They exposit a meeting Leonardo had last month. With you.The camerlegno hesitated, then looked toward the door. Rocher should not have granted you access without consulting me. How did you get in here?Rocher knows the truth. I called earlier and told him what you have done.What I have done? Whatever story you told him, Rocher is a Swiss Guard and far too faithful to this church to believe a tart scientist over his camerlegno.Actually, he is too faithful not to believe. He is so faithful that despite the evidence that one of his loyal guards had betrayed the church, he refused to accept it. All day long he has been searching for another explanation.So you gave him one.The truth. Shocking as it was.If Rocher believed you, he would have arrested me.No. I wouldnt let him. I offered him my silence in exchange for this meeting.The camerlegno let out an odd laugh. You plan to blackmail the church with a story that no one will possibly believe?I have no nee d of blackmail. I simply want to hear the truth from your lips. Leonardo Vetra was a friend.The camerlegno said nothing. He simply stared down at Kohler.Try this, Kohler snapped. About a month ago, Leonardo Vetra contacted you requesting an urgent audience with the Pope an audience you granted because the Pope was an admirer of Leonardos work and because Leonardo said it was an emergency.The camerlegno turned to the fire. He said nothing.Leonardo came to the Vatican in great secrecy. He was betraying his daughters confidence by coming here, a fact that troubled him deeply, but he felt he had no choice. His research had left him deeply conflicted and in need of spiritual guidance from the church. In a private meeting, he told you and the Pope that he had made a scientific discovery with profound religious implications. He had proved Genesis was physically possible, and that intense sources of energy what Vetra called God could duplicate the moment of foundation.Silence.The Pope w as stunned, Kohler continued. He wanted Leonardo to go public. His Holiness thought this discovery might begin to bridge the gap amidst science and religion one of the Popes life dreams. Then Leonardo explained to you the downside the reason he required the churchs guidance. It seemed his Creation experiment, exactly as your Bible predicts, dumbfoundd everything in pairs. Opposites. wanton and dark. Vetra found himself, in addition to creating matter, creating antimatter. Shall I go on?The camerlegno was silent. He bent down and stoked the coals.After Leonardo Vetra came here, Kohler said, you came to CERN to see his work. Leonardos diaries said you made a personal trip to his lab.The camerlegno looked up.Kohler went on. The Pope could not travel without attracting media attention, so he sent you. Leonardo gave you a secret tour of his lab. He showed you an antimatter annihilation the astronomical Bang the power of Creation. He also showed you a large specimen he kept locked away as proof that his new process could produce antimatter on a large scale. You were in awe. You returned to Vatican City to report to the Pope what you had witnessed.The camerlegno sighed. And what is it that troubles you? That I would respect Leonardos confidentiality by pretending before the world tonight that I knew nothing of antimatter?No It troubles me that Leonardo Vetra practically proved the existence of your God, and you had him murderedThe camerlegno turned now, his face revealing nothing.The only sound was the crackle of the fire.Suddenly, the camera jiggled, and Kohlers arm appeared in the frame. He leaned forward, seeming to struggle with something affixed beneath his wheelchair. When he sat back down, he held a pistol out before him. The camera angle was a chilling one looking from behind down the length of the outstretched shot directly at the camerlegno.Kohler said, Confess your sins, Father. Now.The camerlegno looked startled. You will never get out of here al ive.Death would be a welcome relief from the misery your faith has put me through since I was a boy. Kohler held the gun with both hands now. I am giving you a choice. Confess your sins or die right now.The camerlegno glanced toward the door.Rocher is outside, Kohler challenged. He too is prepared to kill you.Rocher is a sworn protector of th Rocher let me in here. Armed. He is sickened by your lies. You have a single option. Confess to me. I have to hear it from your very lips.The camerlegno hesitated.Kohler cocked his gun. Do you really doubt I will kill you?No matter what I tell you, the camerlegno said, a man like you will never understand.Try me.The camerlegno stood still for a moment, a dominant silhouette in the dim light of the fire. When he spoke, his words echoed with a dignity more conform to to the glorious recounting of altruism than that of a confession.Since the beginning of time, the camerlegno said, this church has fought the enemies of God. Sometimes with words. Sometimes with swords. And we have always survived.The camerlegno radiated conviction.But the demons of the past, he continued, were demons of fire and abomination they were enemies we could fight enemies who inspired fear. Yet Satan is shrewd. As time passed, he cast off his diabolical countenance for a new face the face of saturated reason. Transparent and insidious, but soulless all the same. The camerlegnos voice flashed sudden anger an almost maniacal transition. Tell me, Mr. Kohler How can the church condemn that which makes logical sense to our minds How can we decry that which is now the very foundation of our society Each time the church raises its voice in warning, you shout back, calling us ignorant. Paranoid. lordly And so your evil grows. Shrouded in a veil of self-righteous intellectualism. It spreads like a cancer. Sanctified by the miracles of its own technology. Deifying itself Until we no longer suspect you are anything but pure goodness. Science has come to sa ve us from our sickness, hunger, and pain Behold science the new God of endless miracles, omnipotent and benevolent trim down the weapons and the chaos. Forget the fractured loneliness and endless peril. Science is here The camerlegno stepped toward the gun. But I have seen Satans face lurking I have seen the perilWhat are you talking about Vetras science practically proved the existence of your God He was your allyAlly? Science and religion are not in this together We do not seek the same God, you and I Who is your God? One of protons, masses, and particle charges? How does your God inspire? How does your God reach into the hearts of man and remind him he is accountable to a greater power Remind him that he is accountable to his fellow man Vetra was misguided. His work was not religious, it was sacrilegious Man cannot put Gods Creation in a test tube and wave it around for the world to see This does not glorify God, it demeans God The camerlegno was clawing at his body now, his v oice manic.And so you had Leonardo Vetra killedFor the church For all mankind The madness of it Man is not ready to hold the power of Creation in his hands. God in a test tube? A droplet of liquid that can vaporize an entire city? He had to be stopped The camerlegno fell abruptly silent. He looked away, back toward the fire. He seemed to be contemplating his options.Kohlers hands leveled the gun. You have confessed. You have no escape.The camerlegno laughed sadly. Dont you see. Confessing your sins is the escape. He looked toward the door. When God is on your side, you have options a man like you could never comprehend. With his words still hanging in the air, the camerlegno grabbed the neck of his cassock and violently tore it open, revealing his bare chest.Kohler jolted, obviously startled. What are you doingThe camerlegno did not reply. He stepped backward, toward the fireplace, and removed an object from the impetuous embers.Stop Kohler demanded, his gun still leveled. What are you doingWhen the camerlegno turned, he was holding a red-hot instigator. The Illuminati Diamond. The mans eyes looked wild suddenly. I had intended to do this all alone. His voice seethed with a feral intensity. But now I see God meant for you to be here. You are my salvation.Before Kohler could react, the camerlegno closed his eyes, arched his back, and rammed the red hot brand into the center of his own chest. His flesh hissed. Mother Mary Blessed Mother Behold your son He screamed out in agony.Kohler lurched into the frame now standing awkwardly on his feet, gun wavering wildly before him.The camerlegno screamed louder, teetering in shock. He threw the brand at Kohlers feet. Then the priest collapsed on the floor, writhing in agony.What happened next was a blur.There was a great flurry onscreen as the Swiss Guard burst into the room. The soundtrack exploded with gunfire. Kohler clutched his chest, blown backward, bleeding, falling into his wheelchair.No Rocher called, trying t o stop his guards from firing on Kohler.The camerlegno, still writhing on the floor, rolled and pointed frantically at Rocher. IlluminatusYou bastard, Rocher yelled, running at him. You sanctimonious bas Chartrand cut him down with tether bullets. Rocher slid dead across the floor.Then the guards ran to the wounded camerlegno, gathering around him. As they huddled, the video caught the face of a dazed Robert Langdon, kneeling beside the wheelchair, looking at the brand. Then, the entire frame began lurching wildly. Kohler had regained consciousness and was detaching the tiny camcorder from its holder under the arm of the wheelchair. Then he tried to hand the camcorder to Langdon.G-give Kohler gasped. G-give this to the m-media.Then the screen went blank.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Maxis Essay

IntroductionMaxis communication theory Berhad is a prima(p) mobile ph peerless service provider in Malaysia. Maxis Communications Berhad was established in the aboriginal 1990s and commenced mobile tele talks operation in August 1995. It was then listed under the first board in Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). At present Maxis Communication Berhad is the biggest telecommunication provider in Malaysia. The c exclusivelyer-out has primitive subscribers at 13.95 million as of December 2010.Maxis Communications Berhad, through its secondary, Maxis Berhad, engages in the pro plenty of mobile, fixed line, and internationalistic tele communication theory services in Malaysia. It also provides mesh and broadband services and wireless multimedia related services, as well as owns, maintains, builds, and kneads radio facilities and associated switches. The company was founded in 1995 and is based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Maxis Communications Berhad is a subsidiary of Binariang GSM Sdn Bhd.It uses the dialling prefix identifier of 012, 017 and 0142. In 2002, Maxis purchased TimeCell, a rival mobile service provider, from Time dotcom Berhad. Prior to the purchase, Maxis sallyed retrieve numbers beginning with 012, and TimeCell 017. Now, subscribers dope choose between the cardinal. Maxis provide a variety of mobile communication products and services. They offer prepaid call syllabuss, monthly subscription plans, global roaming, MMS, WAP ( all oer both GSM and GPRS), Residential Fixed Line services, Broadband Inter shed light on plans, and as of early 2005, 3G services to both prepaid and post-paid subscription customers. Maxis Broadband make consumer can winder internet access in outdoor or indoor. It can go online at speed oer 15 times faster than traditional dial up and do to a greater extent, much more over the internet.ProfileMaxis Berhad, with its consolidated subsidiaries (together, Maxis), is the take mobile communications service provider in Malaysia.Maxis were granted licences to operate a nationwide GSM900 mobile network, a domestic fixed network and an international gateway in 1993. It commenced its mobile operations in August 1995 and launched its fixed line and international gateway operations in early 1996.Since its establishment, Maxis has been providing a full suite of services on multiple platforms to fulfil the telecommunications needs of psyche consumers, SMEs and big(p) corporations in Malaysia.Maxis mobile service is offered on a post-paid basis under the Maxis nonice and via a prepaid format under the Hotlink brand. The use of these two distinct brands, underpinned by synergistic values, has enabled Maxis to larn its prepaid business sector successfully part maintaining growth in its post-paid segment.Maxis has also pioneered and led the Malayan commercialise in delivering innovative mobile products and services. It was the first to launch 3G services in Malaysia known as Maxis3G in July 2005, a nd in September 2006, it became among the worlds first to use HSDPA, a high-speed progress of its 3G network, to provide wireless broadband services. It was the first operator to bring the BlackBerry and Apple iPhone smart phones to Malaysia. The company in April 2009 unveiled the first commercial NFC-powered service in Malaysia.Maxis provide enhanced post-paid packages to corporal and SME customers, based on its highly successful consumer post-paid plans. These plans be custom-made to meet the needs of enterprises, curiously improved communications within and beyond their compound. Maxis international gateway services include termination of concern into Malaysia from international telecommunications companies, supporting Maxis own outbound international direct dial (IDD) traffic, collecting international cover traffic and bandwidth leasing services. Maxis presently maintain bilateralconnections with more than 95 carriers in 38 countries and let capital of the United States investments in a number of submarine cable systems to carry its international phonate and data traffic.Maxis substantial growth and strong track record of bringing innovation, excellent customer experience and value to stakeholders has won the company numerous awards over the years. The latest awards includeMalaysias Top Ten Companies Ranked 1 Asias 200 Most Admired Companies, The Wall Street Journal Asia, 2006 Asian Mobile actor of the Year Asian Mobile News Award, 2007 Fourth Most Valuable grease in Malaysia Brand Finance, 2008 and 2009 Service Provider of the Year (Malaysia) freezing & Sullivan, 2008 Mobile Data Service Provider of the Year (Malaysia) Frost & Sullivan, 2009 Recipient of the Asia Pacific Super Excellent Brand Award Asia Pacific International Brands Summit Malaysia, 2009Maxis vision is to bring advanced communications services to enrich its customers lives and businesses, in a manner that is simple and in the flesh(predicate)ised, by efficiently and crea tively harnessing leading edge technology, and delivering a brand of service experience that is reliable and enchanting. abridgment of Market StructureMarket structure classifies some of the divulge traits of a securities industry, includingNumber of theatresSimilarity of the products sellEase of entry into and exit from the marketplace place.Comparison of Market StructuresMarket StructureNo. of SellersTypes of Product incoming ConditionsExamples thoroughgoing(a) argumentLargeHomogeneousVery EasySmall crops, International commodity markets noncompetitive ambitionLargeDifferentiatedEasyBoutiques, Restaurants, motelsOligopolyFewUsually differentiated but sometimes identicalDifficultCar Making, Tobacco Products, OilMonopolyOneUniqueExtremely difficultPublic utilitiesMAXIStelecommunication FIRM.Few Competitors like DIGI, CELCOM, TUNETALK etc.. compliance into Telecommunication is Difficult.It requires a queen-size amount of capital.Perfect contestPerfect Competition Market has very large number of small firms, which acts independently rather co-coordinating decisions centrally. Perfect Competition is Price takers due to Huge Competition. Perfect Competition chiefly deals with Homogenous Products.Homogenous mean Goods from one firm cannot be differentiated from other. equivalence Maxis with Perfect CompetitionPerfect CompetitionMaxis1. It has very large Number of firms.2. Entry Requirement is very easy.3. Very less amount of Capital is enough.1. It has few Competitors in the Market likeDIGI, CELCOM, OKTEL etc..2. Entry Requirement is Difficult.3. It requires large amount of Capital.On Comparing Maxis with Perfect Competition market structure. Maxis do not start under Perfect Competition.Monopolistic CompetitionMonopolistic Competition Firm has many Small Sellers.They involves in differentiated Product.It is free from Price Competition.It has Easy Entry as well as Exit.Comparing Maxis with Monopolistic CompetitionMonopolistic CompetitionMaxis1. It has ma ny small sellers.2. Entry requirement is easy.3. Its free from Price Competition.1. It has a few Competitors in the Market.2. Entry requirement is difficult.3. It has contention in charge with their competitor.On comparing Maxis with Monopolistic Competition market structure. Maxis do not come under Monopolistic Competition. MonopolyMonopoly is a Single Seller in the market.It deals with unique product.Entry Barriers is very difficult.Comparing Maxis with MonopolyMonopolyMaxis1. It has Single Seller in the market (free from Competitors). 1. Ithas its Competitors in the market.On comparing Maxis with Monopoly market structure. Maxis do not come under Monopoly.OligopolyIt has very few seller (which is dominated by a few large firms).. It deals with Homogenous as well as Differentiated Product.Entry Barrier is difficult.Comparing Maxis with OligopolyOligopolyMaxis1. It has few Sellers in the market.2. Entry Barrier is difficult.3. It requires a large amount of Capital.1. Maxis have fe w Competitors in the Market.2. Entry obstacle is difficult.3. It requires the large amount of Capital.On Comparing Maxis with Oligopoly market structure. We came to know that Maxis is an Oligopoly.Behaviour of MaxisThe behaviour of Maxis can be identified by considering the number and size distribution of firms (market sh atomic number 18 in terms of subscribers and revenue) in the market the cessation to which products be differentiated how easy it is for other firms to enter the market and the extent to which firms atomic number 18 combine or diversified. However, as in that location are only 3 large cellular communication firms (Maxis, Digi and Celcom), exclusive market shares are used to measure market power.The basic conditions faced by the cellular communication firms areDemand conditionsPrice is relatively elastic as seen by huge swings in net additionsleadership quarters to quarters as different cellular communication firms took on expenditure-leadership. reservoir MALAYSIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS motif Q3 2011Where the actions and the outcomes of these actions are interdependent among several agents and this interdependence is mutually recognized. Neoclassical economics assume perfectly demythologised agents, perfect training and zero transaction costs under perfect aspiration. However, due to limited cognitive capability and/or imperfect information, bounded intelligent agents experience limits in formulating and solving complex problems and in processing (receiving, storing, retrieving, transmitting) information. Routine standard procedures or heuristic approaches to decision-making are employed by bounded rational agents. The sum of the market shares of the n-largest firms.Maxis subscriber net addition dropped to a dismal 120,000 users in 3Q10 before counter to 274,000 users in 4Q10. The relevant substitutes are provided by fixed-line phone companys for local city calls (fixed-line rate of RM0.04/ consequence versus cellular rate of RM0 .15/minute) and Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) providers for IDD calls. However, these are not of major concerns currently as the mobile services are cannibalizing/substituting fixed-line services piece the VoIP providers are competing in a value-conscious segment with an inferior product (i.e. poorer voice quality).Supply conditionsThe cellular technology adopted is the European GSM standards. However, due to constant technology changes, both Maxis and Celcom have launched 3G services earlier while Digi had its 2.75G (EDGE) services previously and recently added 3G services in order to be able to argue with both Maxis and Celcom. The market structure analysis summary of Maxis is as followsData Observations and/or MeasurementAnalysis/CommentNo. of Firms3Regulated OligopolyMarket ShareCellular intentness subscriber market share (overall)Cellular industry revenue market share (overall)Subscriber/ tax market shareCelcom 33% & 36.0%Digi 25% & 25.3%Maxis 41% & 42.1%There is no si ngle dominant firm.However, Maxis is the leading firm in both revenue & subscriber market share, followed by Celcom and Digi. ProductDifferen-tiationProduct specialism based on calling plans and set structure to appeal to different customer segments. Value-added services (ring-tones, etc.) are quite homogenously provided by 3rd party provider. Minimal product differentiation as airtime is airtime and VAS table of contents are widely available across all 3 firms.Entry barriersLicensing and regulationsHeavy capital investments & stripped efficient of scale required First-mover advantages Network & Lock-in effectsHigh entry barriers mainly due to presidential term regulationsDue to frequent technology changes, incumbents do incur substantial ongoing capital expenditures and face the dangers of beingness leapfrogged by potential entrants Numbers portability not implemented yet to counter the lock-in effects of personalized phone numbers. Exit barriersHuge sunk costsBulk of capital investments are asset specific to phone company operations. Source MALAYSIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPORT Q3 2011Price competitionUsing game theoretic model, Telcos are assumed to provide a homogenous product and have sufficient capacity to serve the market demand. It is a non-cooperative game as there werent any enforceable agreements between them as they compete in the marketplace. It is a repeated one-shot simultaneous game as they were driven by quarterly exploit accountable to shareholders. As such(prenominal), they would decide on their secure strategies independently and aware of rivals prices in the market while forming certain expectations about rivals pricing strategies. Actions available are Maintain Price and excision Price.Payoffs are bedded in order of preference ( high number is preferred). The most preferred outcome by firms is where one undercuts price while its competitors maintains price, leading to market share gain at the expense of its rivals. When all firms maintain prices, there is no change in market-share and profitability. When all firms undercut prices, market-share remains with reduced profitability. The strategic-form representation in a simplified 2-player model is as follows Telco2Telco1Maintain PriceUndercut PriceMaintain Price3,31,4Undercut Price4,12,2Example of Game TheorySolving for Nash equilibrium, both players have Undercut Price as theirdominant dodging resulting in a Pareto-inefficient Dominant- Strategy-Equilibrium at (2,2). This is a repeated Prisoners Dilemma game and these interactions are witnessed in the current market through an escalating price-war resulting in reduced Average-Revenue-Per-User (ARPU).Example of Starter pack price wars involving Maxis and DigiLaunch DateMaxis Hotlink 017Digi Beyond PrepaidSep 8, 2005RM20 to RM10Oct 27, 2005RM18 to RM9.90Nov 25, 2005RM10 to RM8.80Dec 10, 2005RM9.90 to RM8.50Average Revenue per UserSource Articles from 2009 to 2011, Press release 2009 to 2011, Maxis reports 20 09 to 2011, Digi Reports 2009 to 2011, Celcom Reports 2009 to 2011. If this game is repeated infinitely, collusive behaviour through the use of Tit-For-Tat strategy may result in non-competitive/monopolistic-like pricing which reduces public welfare. Though Maxis had a higher ARPU previously according to the to a higher place data, Maxis always need to be proactive in monitoring firms behaviour to detect possible still collusion through price-signaling.Product differentiationThe above game theoretic analysis suggests that if the price-war continues,Maxis and the other two firms will eventually be forced to price at their peripheral costs similar to a perfectly competitive firm. Therefore, it is rational to expect Maxis or the similar firms to soften the intensity of the price competition through product differentiation and customer segmentation. It is important to note that traditional microeconomic theory treats all consumers as homogenous. In reality, this is not the case and these firms are thus offering different calling plans, pricing structures (ON-Net/Off-Net), pre-bundled minutes and services, etc.Due to bounded rationality and heterogeneous consumption, consumers find it difficult to make toss-to head cost-benefits comparisons and thus make the products appear to be somewhat non-homogenous and not fully substitutable for one another.These firms are also competing and differentiating through demand stimulation (shifting the demand curve) by organizing SMS contests, sponsoring shows like Malaysian perfection which encourage SMS voting, etc. where the SMS charges are priced much higher than normal SMS charges in order to drive higher non-voice revenue and profitability as illustrated by Maxis, Celcom and Digis 2010 announcements below.Source DiGi AGM 2011 IRwebsiteOne has to take note that the marginal costs are or so negligible relative to the huge fixed-cost investments required. ON-Net refers to calls within the same providers network. OFF-Net refers to calls made from one provider to another providers network. Decision-making based on imperfect information (uncertainty about future, costly to acquire perfect information) and/or limited cognitive capability.Through product differentiation, all(prenominal) differentiated product is addressing its relevant market instead of addressing a large homogenous market, thus allowing Telcos to raise price above marginal cost (and reduce consumers surplus) without losing its entire market share. Thus, product differentiation can soften price competition and create a degree of marketpower. We find from the above data that Maxis currently have the highest market power and leading company with the highest revenue.However, these showcase of firms balance between the reductions in welfare caused by product differentiation pricing above marginal costs versus the increased in welfare by allowing disparate consumers preferences to be closely met. Each firm also find proper ethical behavi our on the part of the Telcos to ensure that public welfare is protected in SMS contests, SMS voting, etc. to prevent undesirable negative consumption externalities such as encouraging the habit of gambling, excessive spending, etc.AdvertisingMaxis often use advertizement to create brand and/or product differentiation in order to soften the price competition. To the extent that persuasive advertising create customer loyalty through perceived differentiation over essentially identical products, they create market power in the sense that consumers may be willing to settle more for preferred brands, thus allowing these type of firms to raise prices above marginal costs.Following the previous assumptions with payoffs stratified in order of preference (higher number is preferred), the most preferred outcome by firms is where one advertises while its competitors get int, leading to market share and profitability gain at the expense of its rivals. When all firms dont advertise, there is no change in market-share and profitability. When all firms advertise, market-share remains with reduced profitability. Maxis uses similar strategy by advertising less gaining market share and more profit at expense of its rivals which we can see below Advertising Expense of 2005 by Malaysian cellular communications industryCommunications SectorMobile Line ServicesRM(million)Communications SectorMobile Interactive ServicesRM(million) make senseRM(million)Celcom52.3Celcom6.658.9DiGi37.7DiGi5.142.8Maxis47.8Maxis1.949.7Source www.mcmc.gov.my, Reports by Maxis, Celcom and Digi 2005 Customer SatisfactionSource SKMM Consumer Survey 2007 at www.mcmc.gov.myThe Customer-Satisfaction-Index (CSI) for the three firms are almost similar. We find that Maxis performance is satisfactory in the market and can be considered as a leading oligopoly firm among the three.ConclusionMaxis is one of the Malaysian oligopoly cellular communications industry with high entry barriers, mainly due to governm ent licensing restrictions and high exit barriers due to huge capital investments (sunk costs). However, frequent technology changes could potentially allow leapfrogging by competitors or potential entrants. The market share is with intense price-competition as the market gets more saturated. Non-price competitionis also intense, mainly through advertising. However, as price-competition escalates, other cellular communication industries are pricing closer to marginal costs as evidenced by the steady drop in ARPU over the past few years. Consumer satisfaction is high for Maxis though consumers are seeking for even lower communications charges and greater geographic coverage.Maxis is currently doing a good job and should continue to push ahead with its plan to allow greater customer choice. Maxis should also monitor for deceptive advertising, SMS contests & voting, etc. and also possible silent collusive behaviour through price-signaling. 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