Tuesday, April 30, 2019

The Expansion Strategy of Jumeirah Group of the Hotel Literature review

The expansion Strategy of Jumeirah Group of the Hotel - Literature review ExampleA company may grow internationally with setting up unsanded enterprises to a new area that has not been tapped, through purchasing off a company or integrating with an existing company (Marcelo at el 2008, P.1). travelling for leisure of business mostly involves crossing national and state boundaries (Prokkola 2010, P.223) and tourism and hotel services provider must(prenominal) tap into providing competitive services and products to the visitor traveling to their company. Jumeirah Group is a multinational company that operates red-hot hotels and serviced apartments in Dubai, Rome, and Shanghai, Germany among other places in the world and its headquarters in Dubai (Newswire, 2012). The company was found in 1997 and is affiliated to Dubai Holding (Hornett, G 2013). The company is planning to grow its operation by establishing five-star luxury hotels in various(a) countries in Africa one of them b eing Seychelles. Seychelles is a group of about 115 granite and coral tropical island in the Indian maritime (Background Note Seychelles 2007). Its temperatures vary all around the year though they are wet due to their size. Most people occupy Major Island while small islands are sparsely occupied, with most of the residents being Africans, Indians, Chinese and French settlers while others are expatriates (Political Conditions 2012, P. 10). Their culture is a mixture of French and Africa through the most used language is English and French. This paper will critically analyze the expansion outline of the Jumeirah group of hotel in this island nation. Feasibility analysis Indian Ocean islands depend on tourism as main economic activities with Seychelles and Maldives being the most preferred than the rest in terms of gross house servant product, employment, tourism income and tourism ventures investments (Prayag 2011, P.221). For example in 2010 tourism contributed to the Gross dome stic product of this islands as follows Mauritius 26.5 %, reunion 4 % in Madagascan 12.7 % % Maldives 63.4 % and Seychelles 46.4 % while it also contributed to the national employment about 14.2 % of the total new appointment in Mauritius, 1.9 % in Reunion,3% in Madagascan, 28.1% in the Maldives and 31.5 %Seychelles (Prayag 2011, P.223). In recent times Indian Ocean islands have recorded increase in tourism activities due to their favorable climate, geographical isolation, relatively capacious coastlines, diversity of ecosystems, cultural diversity and political stability (Prayag 2011, P.223). However, there have been challenges in this industry such(prenominal) as poor working conditions for the employees, high staff turnover, environmental degradation, poor staff training and meagerly rules and regulations (Prayag 2011, P.223). Major islands in the Indian Ocean that include Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar, and Seychelles have teamed up to Form Vanilla islands to trade their cou ntries as the tourist destination with the aim of increasing visitors (Ramchurn 2011, P. 49).

Monday, April 29, 2019

Al Nakheel Blue Community Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Al Nakheel depressed Community - Essay subjectThe Blue Community intends to create awareness for the need to develop the coastal waterfront involving in the process on with Nakheels own experience and expertise, NGOs, think tanks and stakeholders encouraging them to be active instruments of their Blue Community initiatives.The question may arise as to why Nakheel is aiming to promote the Blue Community. According to Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem, Executive lead of the company, Almost ii thirds of the worlds population lives in coastal communities and a large amount of development is taking place in these locations (UAE Press Release, January 20, 2008). The company intends to invest significantly to bring about changes in these environments done research and development with the vision of becoming leaders in sustainable development of coastal communities done its Blue Community initiatives.Formed in 2001, Nakheel can be considered pioneer and frontrunner in the domain of plait of innovative and iconic buildings and landmarks. As regards waterfront development, with the launch of the Blue Community, they have become setters of standards and rules in this field for the others to emulate. The Blue Community launch event held on a dome specially constructed for the purpose on the beachfront by the Palm Jumeirah was attended by prominent figures from government, industry and media. It went with the first ever Tourism Development stick out & Investment Market (TDIM) event of Dubai held between January 20-22, 2008. The stand that Nakheel put up for the event, the largest in the companys history, featured two massive domes for displaying all the waterfront development projects lowtaken by the company. This included a model of Dubai Promenade allowing the visitors a human face at this waterfront community. Dubai Promenade created a virtual peninsula along the emirates shoreline, anchored by a spectacular wheel-shaped five-star hotel (www.nakheel.com). At the TDIM exhibition, a 13-meter long scale model was unveiled by Nakheel demonstrating the companys vision of Dubais growth through development of waterfront with projects under Blue Community. Before we venture further into the Blue Project, let us look at the characteristics of the construction industry in the UAE. With the transformation from a buyers market to a sellers market, over the last decade in that location has been a boom in the UAE construction industry. This construction boom is most visible at Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Going by per capita expenditure on construction, UAE is the world leader with presence of close to 6000 construction companies. The heart and soul value of the UAE construction industry for 2008 has been assessed at USD15.26 bi as per a Business Monitor world-wide Report which is projected to go up to USD22.44bi by 2012.3There are various reasons tin can this tremendous growth. Not much entry barrier is there to hinder the UAE construction industry. Rather the re exist major driving forces in Dubai like a stable political climate, tax-free attitude and on the whole a liberal business environment to facilitate expansion of the industry. Further urge to construction indu

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Organisational Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Organisational Behaviour - Essay ExampleThe paper will also outline nearly of the factors that can compel the brasss to adopt an initiative to intensify their elaborations. The main part of the paper will wrangle the conditions that ought to be created by the management in format to support cultural change in their several(prenominal) judicatures. A summary of the main points discussed will be drawn at the end of the paper. Organizations are able to operate efficiently only when share values exist among the employees, (Ivancevich, Konopake & Matteson (2011, p. 36)). value are regarded as conscious desires or wants of people that guide their behaviour on and off the job. Values that are shape the culture of the organization help the individuals to be take in in a consistent manner across different situations. Values are also related to the societys ideas of what is wrong and right. It is widely believed that an employees behaviour and motion in an organisation are shaped b y its culture (Patterson et al, (1998). Schultz (2003) also concurs with this notion of culture when he states that the behaviour of employees in an organization is significantly impacted by its culture. Basically, organisational culture refers to a system of shared assumptions held by the employees in the organization and these assumptions distinguish one organization from the other (Werner, 2003). The culture of a presumption organization shapes the behaviour of the employees and it also helps them to identify with their company. As noted above, the culture of an organization is deeply fix in its operations such that it becomes difficult to easily change. Basically, organizational culture is the philosophy spirit of organization it is the foundation stone of organization development (Xiaojuan, n.d). in certain circumstances, it may be necessary to change the culture of the organization especially if it has been threatened with negative aspects such as collapse of the company. s pay refers to a transition from a authentic situation or the status quo to the desired future state (Amos et al, 2008). Change is usually necessitated by both internal and external forces. For instance, the evidence suggests that cultural change is most probable to take place when there has been a dramatic crisis that undermines the current status quo and calls into question the relevance of the current culture (Robbins, 1993). In certain instances, weak cultures are more amenable to change than strong ones given(p) that there will be consensus among all people involved that certain changes ought to be implemented in the culture of the organization in order to turn around its fortunes. When the need to change the culture of the organization has arisen, there are certain measures that ought to be taken into account by the management in order to achieve change in the organizations culture. Look at the numbers and develop ways of improving the positive scores and addressing the neg ative ones, (Sinickas, 2006, 112). The critical success factor of using the strategy is to plectrum the important aspects that make the organization unique and try to implement them in the operations of the organization. It is imperative to have top management to act as positive role models. These people are influential in the organization such that they can set the tone through their behaviour. In most cases, managers who lead by example are likely to positively influence the behaviour of

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary Research Paper

Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary - Research Paper suitThe three phases that this marketing simulation summary contains will include a brief discussion of the alert situation, recommending the inhibit solution to tackle the adverse situation, and finally the discussion of the results (Answers n.d).Moreover, we will look at localization and differentiation and will try to understand the relationship between them. Positioning and differentiation of a crossway is extremely crucial for success of a marketing plan. Also, we will try to examine what effects does ware life cycle has on a marketing plan.Sales growth chart of Cruiser Thorr has detrimental slope. The motorcycle has done well in the past but now it requires a serious thought. The dedicated customer segment for these cruiser bikes has grown older. So there is obvious change in proneness and Cruise Thorr motorcycle is not as appealing to them as it was few years back.Even the jr. consumer base for Cru iser Thorr maintains a distance from it because of the price factor. They doubt if Thorr offers proper balance between life-style and price that needs to be paid for it. So the purpose of this scenario remains to assess the positioning of Thor in the marketplace over given lines. These parameters are namely Price, Lifestyle, Services rendered and Quality engineering.Price is the first P of marketing mix and is pivotal in making a buying decision. Wrong or conflicting pricing could overshadow all other Ps and qualities that a product possesses. Younger consumers were everlastingly interested in competitively lower priced motorcycles. Here, an important decision regarding brand dilution is to be made and that what is the appropriate value.Lifestyle image of Cruiser Thorr needs an honest reconsideration. It has already been stated that older consumer cannot live the uniform way they used to when they were young, so there is shift in their preference when it comes to selecting a mo torcycle. Under this parameter important data could be

Friday, April 26, 2019

Land Use in Pinchot Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Land Use in Pinchot - Lab Report Exampleresulted in a decrease in the population of the predatory animal/prey ecosystem composition the 50% and 75% fragmentation created a more distorted distribution of the species. This shows that the hypothesis should be accepted. It was observed that increasing fragmentation is directly proportionate to the add in abundance of the Spiny Firegrass (SFG) and Elk population. The wolf and bluebunch wheatflower (BBWF) population remained constant at 0% and 25% fragmentation and drastically dropped at 50% and 75% fragmentation. The addition of the BBWF, elk and wolf created a more balanced ecosystem in the 0%, 25% and 50% fragmentation as affected by the hierarchy of the species in the trophic level (Moorecroft, n.d.).The increasing fragmentation caused the increase in the abundance of the SFG because of the change magnitude amount of direct sunlight brought about by deforestation. The habitat has become more favorable for the SFG, while unfavorabl e for the wolf and BBWF which take shelter and protection from the forest. Lindsey (2007) emphasized that deforestation directly makes the species depending on the forests compromising and in this case, it will be the wolves and BBWF.The wolves can be considered the keystone species in the Pinchot ecosystem because the results obtained from the 75% fragmentation created a trophic cascade because there was a very small number of the higher level predator that will be able to temper the number of the elks in the ecosystem (Moorecroft, n.d.). The observations gathered shows that the ecosystem is a top-down control of population dynamics.disforestation and urban sprawl has a direct impact on the food web because these two activities endanger the higher level predator, causing a trophic cascade in the ecosystem (Moorecroft, n.d.). Deforestation provides a better habitat for the proliferation of SFG, and urban sprawl drives away the wolves that live in the woods, causing the increase i n the elk population, and consequently depleting the

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Is the UK Meeting its Recycling Targets Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is the UK Meeting its Recycling Targets - Essay ExampleThis idea studies the current state of recycling in the United region with a special emphasis into plastic, trumpery and paper & board materials. It compares the government initiatives and accomplishments to other European nations. It provides a critical analysis of the effect of the EU Directive in reducing landfill contamination.Recycling glass has a beneficial impact in a countrys environment. Susan Hubbard says that every ton of cullet return to the market saves between 1.2 to 2.8 million British caloric units compared with the use of land filling and incineration (Toto, 2005). The process most commonly used to recycle glass is to remelt the material, a procedure which saves energy, reduces carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the consumption of the natural resource (Wrap, 2007). Appendix A illustrates the United Kingdoms glass recycling rate. The country recycled 6% of the glass in 1984, unless nearly 20 years later the recycling rate of the material had increased to 35% in the UK. The EU case waste directive set a 60% glass recycling target for the year 2006 (Glass, 2002). match to Glass Magazine countries such as Germany and Netherlands surpassed the 70% glass recycling rate before 2002, but other European nations such as the United Kingdom were struggling recycling glass a very low recycling rate of 23%.The UK is not very competitive in comparison with its European neighbors in glass recycling. One of the reasons the United Kingdom is struggling to recycle at the footmark of other European nations is because the country does not have an effective glass recovery program in place to separate crystal and colour glass. There are different markets in the recycling industry for the two types of glass. If the UK establishes an efficient system to separate the products in their pickup efforts they could accelerate the process of

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Compare and contrast two case studies of strategic management Essay

Comp be and contrast cardinal strip studies of strategic management techniques in the public sector in order to examine a) the shock absorber of strategic leadership and b) t - Essay ExampleWe shall try to apply theoretical knowledge to the fictional character study research. This theoretical knowledge will become the basis for fulfilling the main purpose of the present case study.Glaxo is a wellness company with strong foundation into science. It is occupied with production of medicine for World health Organizations three priority diseases HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The strategic management of the company consists of four steps draw, see, conceptualise and plan.Reuters is known to be news service organization. It is necessary to mention that the company was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter. Nowadays Reuters provides reports to newspapers from the whole world. But news provides only less than 10% of Reuters income. It concentrates on providing financial marke ts with necessary and essential information about new products and their trading. Their activities involve currency rates, share legal injury and other market data. (Kay 1995)Strategic management is the process of specifying an organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources so as to tool the plans. (Strategic management techniques) It is known that strategic management is the highest level of managerial process. This process is performed by executive team up headed by CEO (Chief Executive Officer). (Kay 1996)Strategic management is withal concerned as combination of cooking and implementation of companys strategy. But there must be strong correlation amid purpose and the chosen strategy. There are several steps of strategy formulationThese two processes are on-going and ever-lasting. It is a common knowledge that strategic management is really dynamic and it requires permanent reformation and improvement. It also i ncludes patterns of complex actions and reactions,

What Is Morality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

What Is Morality - Essay Examplering of pension plans or their consummate(a) termination reductions in health care benefits and wage stagnation in spite of increased returniveness (Feldman, 2007).Indeed, it is through these ethical issues that a redefinition of the essence of business is important. Specifically, it is crucial to ask (1) is the essence of business strictly based on profitability and growth? And (2) should businesses be regarded as moral agents (and therefore be amenable for their actions)?While it is true that profit drives the business as it sustains business trading operations, it is not the sole determinant of profitability. Unfortunately, roughly businesses today solely focus on serving one type of stakeholdertheir end consumersthat they fail to strike their other publics employees, society, and the environment.In this regard, the implementation of the aforementioned ways to cut down costs may very end up costly for the company, as these may lead to (1) ba d publicity affecting product loyalty (2) lawsuits being filed to address improper employee treatment and (3) investment withdrawals by image-sensitive shareholders. All of these examples reinforce the effect that ethical business practices can indeed translate to business profitability.However, it must be pointed out that cover ethicality as a mere tool for profitability remains conceptually ambiguous, especially when attempting to shed soft on their stark differences. This is why revisiting the essence of business is significant in order to glean insights on what the business is and how it should act.To begin, it must be made clear that a company is a separate and self-determining entity since it is comprised of tender beings who are completely capable of controlling the businessthrough culture creation, strategic business alignments, and operations planningin order to achieve its goal of profitability. In this regard, any company is said to be free, and is therefore given its rights and

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

The Future of Women's Professional Sport Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The Future of Wo mens Professional Sport - quiz ExampleThe author of the essay The Future of Womens Professional Sport begins with the short introduction. He mentions that until recently, womens passe-partout sports were considered by many to be a novelty at best. Yet to assume mens sports have been widely accepted throughout a long period of judgment of conviction would be incorrect. In 1950, only one master key sport, major league baseball, was dominant in America. Mens professional football, basketball, and hockey organizations were, by comparison, niche businesses. It was only with the advent of television that interest in all mens sports grew, for most at a fast pace starting in the 1960s. To understand where the approaching of womens professional sports might be headed, it is important to understand its past and its present in hurt of the challenges that have been overcome as well as the problems that remain to be faced. Prior to the 1960s, U.S. women lived in a society t hat discouraged girls participation in sporting activities and work outside the home. Because of this, few egg-producing(prenominal)s at the time had aspirations of sport as a career path. The women who did pursue their athletic goals were therefore not as good as their male counterparts and remained unprepared to take advantage of the new media. Girls and womens sports received a foster in 1972 when Title IX became law. To sum up the author says that excluding a few sports, such as tennis, ice skating and gymnastics, low salaries and unequal publicity are some of the problems that many professional female athletes still face.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Volunteer report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

provide report - Essay ExampleEducation is a very strong factor that determines individual and residential district success. These means that the society needs to be fitting to educate about life and any opposite important knowledge that they need to have. But people are not solely the same. Some of the American people are less fortunate, and they need the help of other Americans who are willing and can domiciliate help. This goes a long way to helping the needy in the society by being towering financially and also helping them to have a good meal. United way also looks at minimizing the level of school dropouts by helping them to solve issues that affect them.Having all this in mind, I took ingredient of my time and volunteered to offer my help to the organization. I dedicated my 5 hours at the organization and during this time, I was able to decorate a Christmas tree which was actually my first time to, I distributed turkeys for Thanksgiving Day that was to be given to the homeless, I helped to fold some T-shirts as well as arranging book fits for boys and girls and this all was to help the kind to make out their Christmas in style. The children were so kind and respectful and I they made me enjoy the 5 hours that I spent in the United

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Discuss Competitive Strategies Coca Cola Should Adopt to Develop Essay

Discuss Competitive Strategies coca plant Cola Should Adopt to Develop Business Expansion in China - Essay Examplethe ask Globalization and the increasing competition in the current business world reflect the growth and breeding of different businesses and their expansion across different countries. The beverage industry is one of the largest industries in the world. The Coca-Cola Company universe one of the leading companies in the worlds beverage industry (www.rediff.com), a research on their business strategies would help in an understanding of how leading companies create and maintain their position in their birth countries as well as in otherwise countries through expansions. With 126 years in business, the Coca-Cola Company before long has 142,200 worldwide employees, over 3,500 brands, 49 consecutive years in increased dividends and over 200 countries where their beverages parcel out (www.thecoca-cola social club.com). The confederacy first entered China in the 1920s w ith the first bottling plant established in Shanghai, 1927. It shortly expanded its bottling operations to Tianjin, 1927 and then Qingdao, 1930. In 1949, the company closed operations in China when the collectivized regime rose. Since its reentry in 1979, The Coca-Cola Company has seen tremendous growth, where over the last quarter century, brands of The Coca-Cola Company have choke major household names in China. It recently opened its 42nd bottling plant in the rural to help further the companys dominance in the beverage industry within the country (www.thecoca-colacompany.com). Chinas beverage industry reflects a huge market, particularly for large companies like the Coca-Cola Company. The company strongly has its operations in China but the growing competitions and other internal and external factors whitethorn affect the successful expansion plans of the company (Zhang & Alon, 2011, p.287). The rationale of the study is... The rationale of the study is based on learning an d understanding the rivalrous business strategies of a leading beverage company that may returns the expansion of the company in the China market. In the modern world of increased globalization, there is a need to learn the theories and concepts followed by large companies. This is to have a view on the strategies necessary to lay aside up a position of a company in the industry among its competitor companies. This study would focalize on the Coca-Cola Company that already has its operations in the China market and would look for further expansions to which the company has the requirement of innovative and hawkish strategies that would keep its position above its competitors. The results of this study would prove indispensible to business breeding managers and the business development team endowed with the responsibility of identifying expansion opportunities. The study would also help other companies who require strategies to expand business elsewhere. The researcher will gai n knowledge in formulation of competitive strategies that can be applied in future endeavors. Hence, this study is rational in the context that the competitive business strategies of one of the leading companies could be learnt and the research would enable other companies to use such strategies in creating their competitive advantages while expanding their businesses.

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Surrealism. Annotated bibliography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Surrealism. Annotated bibliography - Essay ExampleBy considering the artists experience, one can discover the depth of the joint meaning of dreams through rendition surrealistic arts along with Skyrskys dreams. This journal article is relevant to my essay because even though it does not examine a specific art croak that I am going to address, it demonstrates a profound way of examining dreams in art. Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York Oxford University Press, 1999. Print. In his book, Freud Sigmund argues that dreams express ones desires. harmonize to Freud, when one is conscious, unfulfilled desires atomic number 18 controlled by Spereo. Spereo is the censor that activates awareness of desires and enforces morality. Spereo lowers our guard to those desires in dreams so that we are able to see and act them out while we are dreaming. This book is useful to my study because Freuds theory has influenced many artists and his idea overlaps Michael Gondrys approach t o dreams in the movie, The Science of Sleep. I believe that this work will help me to interpret the movie for my essay. Bohn, Willard. Surrealism. New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 15 Jan. 2011

Friday, April 19, 2019

Socio-cultural Influences on Sexuality Research Paper

Socio-cultural Influences on Sexuality - Research Paper Exampleor, gender identity and roles and gender stereotyping and bais are majorly influenced by kind and cultural issues as demonstrated by divergent perceptions and approaches across different socio-cultural settings. Different societies deal cultures that have been nurtured over a long time that influence the perception of the members with regard to fetch upuality issues. The paper looks at the various perspectives in which socio-cultural issues influence perception with regard to sexuality.Debates surrounding sexual orientation and accomodation of same sex partners in roughly societies are usually influenced by the socio-cultural provisions with regard to such unions. The catholic church, or so African and Arab countries have strongly expressed their opposition towards such unions. The common attribute of the catholic church, most African and Arab countries is that sexuality is not usually a subject that I spoken openly and dismantle with the reality of gays and lesbians, these societies go at great lengths to condemn such unions. According to Worrel (2003), these socities are characterized by the existence of socio-cultural norms nurtured over long periods of time and no opposition to these norms is usually welcome. Worrel continues to outline that in more elective societies in the western world and other developed countries, gays and lesbians are being given a break to fight for recognition in the society.Gender roles and identity are aspects that are nurtured at a avery infantile that by the time children grow to become adults they already have solid perceptions towards these issues. The traditional set up where the man was supposed to provide for the family while the woman stayed at home to take care of children is soothe a major concern for gender equality activists. Even with the changing society where socio-economic developments have do it necessary for the woman to work to supplement the earnings of the man, the society still finds it difficult to embrace the change.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

US Constitution and gun Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

US Constitution and gun - Research newspaper ExampleHowever, not all these reasons go for eliminated the numerous cases reported on a daily flat coat within the country of civilians improper usage of firearms.As such, civilian gun ownership led to a number of unnecessary deaths and injuries in the country. For instance, in most cases, the civilians cited that they needed to use these guns against fellow civilians in self-defence or to close out a crime. Few of such cases rarely prove that the civilian had any plea to hold a gun against another civilian. Furthermore, the usage of guns in the United States has escalated to considerable levels whereby criminal gangs have ease of access to firearms for which to use in doing their criminal activity. This holds the entire country at ransom, as swell as depreciates the level of security in the country. Many a times have irate minded, or persons with mental illnesses held civilians at hostage with firearms, and some even shot at innoc ent children and schoolteachers at an dim-witted school. As such, it is evident that civilian gun ownership requires a uplifted level of discipline from the civilians.This is the profound reason that civilians give for wanting to own private firearms. This is a valid reason especially considering the high rate of crime and insecurity within the country. It is no doubt that an individual will at matchless point come across a compromising situation that requires personal protection and self disproof with the use of a gun, such as a rape scare for the women, a kidnap fire for the rich, as well as a carjacking attempt for car and vehicle owners. For these reasons, a gun comes in handy, as the threatened individual will use it to protect himself or herself from the aggressor, and if lucky pr occurrence the occurrence of a crime. Others keep guns in safekeeping at their homes for such cases of insecurity, especially in the event a burglar attacks their home and attempts to steal or make away with their property.The United

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Informal Fallacies Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Informal Fallacies - Article ExampleThe paper discusses the State of the Union address by the president of the United States, Barack Obama. In this speech, President Obama said that the States was facing a Sputnik moment. This was an interesting insert and one that was designed to gain the attention of millions of Americans, even those who did not remember what Sputnik was. The facts are as follows Sputnik was a satellite sent into orbit by the Soviet Union. It was the first ever satellite and marked the imbue of the Space Age. Americans were shocked that the Soviet Union was able to beat them in this manner. They believed they were richer and more technologically advanced. Sputnik was a wake-up call. It encouraged America to innovate faster. They were eventually the first country to land a man on the moon. Obama suggests that America has fallen behind countries much(prenominal) as China in terms of economic suppuration and research. Obama argued that this is a new Sputnik moment that must spur America on. This is the fallacy of hasty generalization. It may full like a persuasive argument but the premise that America in 2011 is like America in the 1950s is a false one, as is the notion that a clear goal such as landing a man on the moon is comparable to increasing economic act and research. Sometimes nice sounding rhetoric is not effective. The truth is that it was not a concerted organization effort that landed a man on the moon, it was the hard work of engineers dedicating themselves to a specific task.

Finance - Rivington Hospital Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Finance - Rivington Hospital - Essay Example..6 Heating and Power be.6 Conclusion.6 References.7 Introduction The performance of any department can be evaluated in a enumerate of ways, among which the fulfilment of budgets is considered vital. This report focuses on evaluating the performance of the lavation department based on revised budget estimates. The report begins by examining the effects of the existing budget on the behaviour of the laundry supervisor. After this, it outlines the antithetical criteria for the investigation of variances, including a redrafting of the memo and revision of the existing budget, before reaching conclusions. a) Effects on the behaviour of the Laundry Supervisor There may be various effects on the behaviour of the laundry supervisor because of the imposition of the budget. The existing budget has several negative elements that could lead to the laundry supervisor reacting and behaving in an irrational manner. ... The second negative effect on the supervisors productivity is that the budget was brisk as if to pressurise her, rather than to motivate her, because despite the increasing volume and turnover of the hospital the budget was set in a rigid manner using the old budgeted activity levels. It is also eventful to note that the quality of the laundry departments performance may be hampered from now on, as the supervisor might try to achieve the budget targets irrespective of whether quality is assured or not. deception could also become a problem, as if her only objective is to meet the targets set out in the budget, she may attempt to fulfil them by adopting negative tactics. There are costs involved that impart definitely increase because of growth in the activity level, which means the laundry supervisor will not have any control over them. Therefore, this could ultimately lead her to deploy negative tactics in the form of misrepresentation, falsification and poor quality control measures. b) Criteria for Invest igation of Variances The criteria for evaluating whether variances ought to be investigated or not should be based upon the nature of the costs incurred by the different departments. The basic criterion is to divide them into controllable and unwieldy costs. The controllable costs should be aligned with the actual activity level of the department, as they change concord to variation in the activity level therefore, they should be investigated if there is a significant amount of variation. In this way, Rivington Hospital has the choice of whether to use the absolute or relative method to investigate the negative variances. The new(prenominal) types of costs are uncontrollable costs, and are incurred

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Minimum Legal Drinking Age Essay Example for Free

Minimum wakeless Drinking ripen EssayDo you believe the bever get along with come along should be let down to quit xviii year olds to consume inebriant, or should the legal period to drink alcoholic bever terms stay at the age of twenty-one? Prior to 1984 you were, once you turned 18, in most separates permitted to purchase alcohol. It was completely up to the state government. At age 18 they are leg bothy an expectant, and ordure at that placefore abide by their own rules and if they make a bad finale they have to pay the price. Why is it that as an adult you are permitted to purchase rifles, tobacco products, you can vote, affiance in the military, go to a casino, get a tattoo, body piercings, get married and til now work in a bar but you cant buy or consume alcohol?When you think of alcohol and eighteen year-olds what generally pops into discernment is underage drinking, binge drinking, wild parties and date rape. But that is only the view of the ir obligate d side of drinking, undecomposed as there is an irresponsible side of drinking at age twenty-one. At age eighteen you should be allowed to purchase or consume alcohol as you please, be suit of clothes you are legally an adult and responsible for your own maskions. The Minimum judicial Drinking Age should be lowered to age eighteen.When you turn eighteen in the United States of America you are legally considered an adult. Until the 1984 Minimum good Drinking Age act you were allowed (at least in some states) to buy alcohol when you wanted. Subsequently to the passing of that law every state was forced to raise their minimum age to twenty-one. One of the men who voted for the 1984 Minimum Legal Drinking Age act, Morris E. Chafetz, stated that he voted for it it doesnt work and goes on to say that it is the single most regrettable decision of my entire professional political machineeer The reality is that at age 18 in this country, one is a legal adult. Young people view 21 as utt erly arbitrary- which it is.And because the explanation given is so condescending- because they lack maturity and judgment, these same people who can serve on juries and sign contracts and who turned give away in overwhelming numbers to elect our first black president- healthful they dont buy it. And neither do I. (Chafetz 554-555) The Unites States military is one of the largest in the world, and has many bases and various stations throughout the entire world. At the age of 18 you must (if you are male) sign up for selective service (the draft) and you are eligible to enlist in the military regardless of your gender. Why is it that you can deploy to another country, fight for your country, get shot, turn a loss limbs and have the memories of that with you for the rest of your life, but you cant purchase alcohol?If you are old decent to risk your life to fight for your country and fight for the freedoms of this country then you should be able to go buy a beer at the bar with you r buddies. Jeff Rainforth, a man who ran for congress, said that Since the age was raised, many unripe adults have drunk very much abusively than in the past. Like national Prohibition, it was been counter-productive. Raising the drinking age brought rough more problems than it solved. and went on to say that he recommends that is the legal drinking age was not lowered he recommends that military members can not go to combat until age 21. John McCardell, who founded and is now the manager of an organization that exists to lower the drinking age back to eighteen, and also started the Amethyst Initiative talks about his solution to the problem.McCardell has credibility on this topic due to the fact that he is a former college professor and president, and is now a vice-chancellor at the University of the South, who has personally seen the way teenagers on a college campus drink and has an idea what leave behind help with this issue. He says Alcohol education is what we need. Thi s would make teenagers aware of the harms of drinking alcohol and reduce the number of binge drinking that goes on. Lowering the drinking age would teach teenagers moderation. If they are drinking in a controlled setting where they are allowed to drink and dont have to hide it, they lead be more likely to casually drink. McCardell says that the 1984 Minimum Legal Drinking Age law was an abysmal failure it hasnt lessen or eliminated drinking, it simply driven it underground, behind closed doors, into the most risky and least manageable of settings.In the 60 minutes interview with CBS, the Boulder, Colorado Chief of Police, Mark Beckner is also an advocate for lowering the drinking age to eighteen. He says that we cant stop it. The best we can do is try to contain it. match to the 2010 National Survey on Drug use and Health, driving under the influence of alcohol was associated with age. The age group with the highest number of infractions(including wrecks) was the twenty-one to t wenty-five year-old group at 23.4% of infractions existence drunk/having been drinking as opposed to only 15.1% in the eighteen-twenty year-old group and a mere 5.8% in sixteen and seventeen year-olds.As far as fatal crashes go, the highest percent of drunk drivers that were involved in a fatal car crash was the group of 21-24 year olds. 25-34 year olds came in at 30%, 35-44 at 24% and all fatal car crashes of individuals that were above age 44 and below age 21 was only 14%. Driving under the influence of alcohol was associated with age in 2010. The rate was highest among persons aged 21 to 25 (23.4 percent). An estimated 5.8 percent of 16 or 17 year olds and 15.1 percent of 18 to 20 year olds report driving under the influence of alcohol in the past year. Beyond age 25, these rates showed a general decline with increasing age. Many other western have long had a much more lenient attitude toward alcohol and alcoholic beverages.Many have set their Minimum Legal Drinking Age at 18, s ome at 16 and some do not even have a Minimum Legal Drinking Age. In many countries, such as Germany, there are very few drunk driving incidents whatsoever. In these countries parents often consume alcoholic beverages with their children, including beer or wine(in countries like France). By the time Europeans are allowed to drive they have been educated on the effects of alcohol and have been consuming alcohol for several years.Safe alcohol consumption should the same way as safe sex practices and drivers education classes. No one us nave enough to think that teenagers will practice abstinence to turn away sexual encounters only in order to avoid a sexually transmitted disease, so why are people foolish enough to believe that teens will avoid alcohol unsloped due to its dangers? Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age will cause the teens who drink to rebel against their authorities to not drink as much due to it not being rebellious. Until a solution is agreed upon about whether the drinking age should be lowered, or stay at the age of 21, this will remain a controversial topic.Using these strategies in this essay works well to effectively persuade every single viewer that underage drinking is in fact a problem, and is attributed to the current law not allowing people to buy or consume alcohol under the age of 21. Because of the problems that are created because of this current law, it would be in this countrys best interest to lower the drinking age. This would prevent an increase number of alcohol related deaths due to underage binge drinking in the future. These are just a few of the reasons that the Minimum Legal Drinking Age act of 1984 should be repealed and the Minimum Legal Drinking Age should be at age 18.Works CitedChafetz, Morris E. The 21-Year-Old Drinking Age I Voted For It It Doesnt Work. sound Reasons With Contemporary Arguments. Eds. Lester Faigley and Jack Selzer. Boston Longman, 2012. 554-555. Print McCardell, John. A Drinking Age of 21 D oesnt Work. Good Reasons With Contemporary Arguments. Eds. Lester Faigley and Jack Selzer. Boston Longman, 2012. 550-553. Print. Issue in Focus Drinking on College Campuses. Good Reasons With Contemporary Arguments. Eds. Lester Faigley and Jack Selzer. Boston Longman, 2012. 548-550. Print. CBSNews. (2010, March 01). The debate on lowering the drinking age. Retrieved from http//www.cbsnews.com/2100-18560_162-4813571.html-

Monday, April 15, 2019

The Man at the Well Essay Example for Free

The human being at the well Es imagineSome say its not what we do but what we gaint do that can truly define who we atomic number 18. In the tenth chapter, The Man at the Well, from Tim OBriens memoir, If I die in a Combat Z angiotensin converting enzyme, OBrien manages to portray wholeness of the most powerful messages throughout his entire journey. Its about American ignorance, the inability to help those in need, the true meaning of humanity and whether we, as a population, argon capable to break d give barriers and walls that we, ourselves, guide constructed. A blustery and stupid spend, blond hair and big belly, picked up a cartonful of take out and from fifteen feet away hurled it, for no reason, aiming at the old man and striking him flush in the face. The carton burst. Milk sprayed into the old mans cataracts. He hunched foreword, rocking precariously and searching for his balance. He dropped his bucket. His detainment went to his eyes then dropped loosely to hi s thighs. His blind gaze was fixed straight ahead, at the stupid spends feet (Page 100).OBriens language its purposefully proposed and constructed to paint unrivalled of the most undimmed images in the whole memoir. He creates a scene which the readers innovative mind engulfs and produces it into one of the most captivating and heart wrenching pictures easily shown like a movie in our own heads. His undeniable choice of descriptive words cant help but have the military group of a film-like image flowing through the readers imagination. OBrien uses this carefully disguised physical composition technique to ultimately grasp the hearts of his followers and use their sacrificing vulnerability to engrave a philosophic idea in their minds such(prenominal) as humanitys opinion of right and wrong.The Man at the Well produces a foundation of shame and disbelief to think that a human being, an American soldier who is looked up to by children, Vietnamese and American, can fabricate such a hurtful scene. The audacity to flat act out the horror and hate is appalling to any reader it makes he or she motion the motives of several American soldiers and whether or not their morals are politically correct. It is a fine get out between what is right and wrong there is little gray in a situation such as this. Its clear the anecdote was an act of hatred. There was no question to whether the ignorance of the stupid soldier was right it was far past right. However why then, did no one do or say anything? Instead an audience watched as a man, a blind and elderly man, who voluntarily was helping them, suffered from one mans intolerable actions.People are afraid and that attention creates a boundary. It changes peoples beliefs and ideas one thought process always to be right and those ideas could change in an instance with the doubt fear carries. People come to a crossroads in their lives where what they once thought their morals were, what they once thought they would s tand up for is no longer because fear created a wall a wall that is unbearable to take down. It is a wall built in front of different people however sharing a common sense of right and wrong. These people cannot see past their own selfish fear to solve a crisis outside of themselves. If just a few attempted to demolish this imaginary barricade the outcome could be greatly beneficial, however, its impossible to achieve unless people step outside of themselves and into a world they desire.The chapter argues ones sense of humanity and the pressure that people feel and sometimes are burdened by. However, OBrien places himself, as an author, in a position which he attempts to break down the wall. He asks you, What is and what is not right? What are you going to do? Stand there and watch? Or are you going to do something about it? I found the section powerful, moving and inspirational, and even more so if those who did answer his underlying questions, answered with an optimistic, yes we can do this point of view.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Cultural Tourism Essay Example for Free

heathenish Tourism EssayTourism is one of the largest industries in the world straighta authority that consists of eco- touristry, beach touristry, cruises, heathen tourism and business tourism. This essay get out mainly discuss the authenticity of ethnic tourism. Meethan suggested in 2001 that modern burnishs and societies are just as authentic as those that are present since decades and all the same centuries. Meethan here is correct, because the tourists really seek a dispersed experience in cultures both modern and old. However, many people think that only the usageal cultures and received artefacts come under the translation of authentic pagan tourism. Even the tourists have a antithetic insight of what constitutes the authenticity in pagan tourism. This essay will talk about these issues and their implications for ethnical tourism. Cultural tourism, according to World Tourism Organization (WTO), is the visit of the elicit tourists to culturally rich addresss and their visit consists of a range of activities such as visits to heritage buildings and sites, care performances of the local artists, taking part in traditionalisticistic festivities and pilgrimage of holy places.Many do non check up on with this narrow definition by WTO as the cultural tourism is synonymised with the civilizations and the musical mode of living of the historic societies in that tourist destination. The local residents are mostly ignored from the definition and also from the concept of cultural tourism. However, the uprightness is that the locals make up for the major part of the experience of tourists. Their way of living and the current culture of the residents if practically revitalized for enhancing the experience of the tourists.This forced influence on the local cultures for attracting much than tourists is hurting the authenticity of the cultures in tourist destinations (Clarke 2003). Although it is true that tourists seek a combination of mo dern and traditional cultures on their destinations, save they privilege to consume traditional and modern tourism separately. Some of the tourists just fly from East to West for drop into the beauty of traditional culture. These tourists want to enjoy the tradition by visiting cultural heritage buildings, attending traditional theatres and listening to the cultural songs of the destination.However, some cultural entrepreneurs try to blend the modern aspects with the traditional culture for the promotion of the destinations. There is a triangle of the cultural entrepreneurs, the tourists and the residents of the destination. The culture of the destination is defined by the way of living of the residents and the activities of the entrepreneurs. For the purpose of expanding the business, attracting more tourists and enhancing their sales, the local hosts and cultural entrepreneurs force the residents to permute their way of living and affiliation it to the culture.This is done in order to present the tourists with a cultural experience. Hungary has been known for the production wine and the tradition of venial wine shops with their own vineyards. These shops and the people involved in the production of wine were of a concomitant attraction to the tourists as they saw this tradition of wine production as a rich culture. As tourism thrived, there were attempts to increase the production of wines through both, the government authorities and through the cultural entrepreneurs. However, this spate production of wine was not as sure-fire as the wine from small wineries.This is the threat to the authenticity of the culture and the tourists turn up that they did not like this blend of modern and traditional culture in Hungary. They proved that they preferred the traditional culture over the modern culture as the mass production of Magyar wine was not successful. The tourists came to this Hungarian destination for the experience of the traditional small wineri es and not for the wine. The tourists also did not get any special treatment by the independent wine producers in Hungary because they considered the tourists as a source of sales.The tourists were not treated any differently from other customers and they were given the sale offer hear it and purchase it if you like it. This was because the only interest for the wine producers was the revenue from the sale of the wines and nothing more. In this case, the original culture was not touched by the cultural entrepreneurs, and minimal accommodation was made for the tourists such as the use of local wood for furniture. This resulted in the reduction of wine tourism in this area as there was no cultural entrepreneurship.There was nothing more in the offer except the wine, but afterwards some food dishes were also added to the menu but the tourism still was low because of the more complex wine tourism efforts by the other countries. The other countries excelling in wine production attracted more tourists than Hungary because they were able to blend the modern and traditional culture. Another case that supports the view of Meethan is the case of Valley of the arts which attracted millions of customers each year at the arts festival that was organized by Istvan Marta.The organizers gave a deep vista on the cultural perspectives of the valley and they came to the conclusion that different tourists have different needs. The high knock offers would require different type of product than attending just a simple art festival. The venues were made better and redesigned and the trade efforts were doubled. The organizers attracted sponsorships and media coverage and hence added to the appeal. The locals were also involved and were allowed to attend the shows and these events were transformed into a very fashionable one. before long the streets became crowded with high end cars owned by the German tourists. Hence, from these two case studies, the lessons learnt are that an e ntrepreneurial spirit is undeniable for the promotion of the cultural tourism focusing on the mettle of the activity. Hence, modern and traditional cultures need to go hand in hand for the attraction of the world(prenominal) tourists. The commercial intent is necessary but the tradition should be kept alive which is the driving force for the tourists.The tourists should be given added facilities to extend the sales and attract the high spenders and luxury seekers. While Alan Clarke was working in the rural areas of Hungary, the local tradition was kept alive but still the communication technologies had a lot of penetration. The list of available international channels was far more than the number available in United Kingdom. The rural areas had access to Hungarian, Italian, Spanish, French, German, Ameri loafer and Russian channels (Clarke 2003).Jaipur, a culturally rich city of India, is particularly selected as a destination by tourists because of its historical attractions in cluding the handicrafts and the heritage. Jaipur inhibits some of the forts built by the Moguls, centuries old paintings, the preserved sculptures and the traditional excellence in architecture that is preserved in buildings such as mosques. The tourists are also keen to visit Jaipur because of the folklore dances and Sufi music that was inspired by pundits and saints centuries ago.However, the city is continuously gearing up and adding more hotels and hi-tech facilities for the tourists. The core product of tourism in this city is the same for all tourists, but different income level groups can enjoy different class of tourism in this city (Kala 2008). High spenders can opt to spend their evenings in luxury spas while the people belonging to lower income group can live in small hotels and save money to spend on the purchase of handicraft and sculptures.According to a horizon on the local residents, around 85% of the residents of Jaipur think that there was an evidence of developme nt of city because of tourism and more entertainment facilities such as pubs, bars, hotels, swimming pools and parks were macrocosm developed. In the city, the local small scale industries were also being promoted by the government as the handicraft items were in demand by the foreign tourists. New hotels were also being built for accommodating the increasing number of tourists over time. This has induce employment and created new job opportunities for the local residents.Around 81% of the respondents in Jaipur thought that employment was being generated in the city because of the increasing tourism. Hotels and restaurants are labour intensive and hence they require the locals to work in their facilities. This generates more jobs for the local residents. Increasing tourism had positive impacts on the economy, but the locals have to face the problems such as increased traffic jams in the city and change in the culture. The way of living of the locals change as the standard of living gets better.Once the international tourists start coming in, and development start, then the uncomplicated culture is forgotten. 71% of the respondents of a survey in Jaipur commented that the increase in tourism has affected their traditional culture (Kala 2008). This change in traditional culture and way of living could harm the cultural tourism industry in the long term because the tourists will not be attracted to the city once the way of living of the locals is changed. The tourist-host interaction is very important in cultural tourism because it is an integral part of cultural tourism.The cultural tourists expect a spontaneous interaction with the locals and their traditional hospitality. However, if these important elements are vanished from the Jaipur culture, then the cultural tourists will no longer be attracted to the city. From the case studies presented, it is proved that only those tourist destinations have been successful which integrated modern and traditional cult ure. Authenticity of the culture is affected by designing attractions for the tourists but this depends upon the definition of cultural tourism. The modern tourist, however, can no longer enjoy cultural tourism that is untouched by modernity.There are also some issues when there is a blend of the two types of cultures. If these issues are managed properly, cultural tourism can be of great help to the economy of the destination and it can be trustworthy for raising the standard of living of the locals too. WORKS CITED Clarke, A. The Cultural Tourism Dynamic. Conference on Developing Cultural Tourism. UK University of Nottingham, 2003. Kala, N. Host Perception of Heritage Tourism Impact with Special Refernce to the City of Jaipur. entrepreneurs 1, no. 1 (2008) 65-76.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Pro-Forma and Business Cycle Research Paper Essay Example for Free

Pro-Forma and condescension Cycle explore Paper EssayThis report allow for comp ar the pro-forma m hotshottary statement of two companies bank of the States and General Electric in any case-known as GE. It will describe and summarize the comparison of both organizations and their fiscal stability. It will also detail the typical product line regular recurrence of these two companies.Pro-Forma Financial of General Electric and imprecate of the StatesGeneral Electric and Bank of America are two companies in the US that are competing to increase their sales, as well as their income in order to increase profits. Both companies are real strong financially GE is an agglomerates industry with a market capital of $259.56 one thousand million and Bank of America one of the major financial institutions with a market capital of $183.25 billion. Both companies make an effort to alter their bottom figures in each financial year. Bank of America had some merging and restructuring expenses in 2008, plainly was still showing remarkable pay. However in the latest first-quarter 2014 report, a net loss of $276 jillion was published. In 2014, GE decided to acquire the power and Grid logical argument of Alstom. GE expects the deal to be accretive to earnings in the first year. (www.businesswire.com, 2014).Financial Viability and Ratio abbreviation of General Electric accord to the GE third-quarter 2014 annual report, the organization is performing well and has experienced profit growth since 2013 in the pursuance areas operating earnings, revenues, industrial segment profits, industrial segment organic revenue, and growth market orders. In addition, rising technologies sparked an increase in equipment orders. Likewise, the organization has a strategy in place that has created growth in operate business. GE will continue to simplify ope symmetryns and focus on the needs of its consumers. Furthermore, GE is go along to gain approval to acquire Alstom Power and Grid businesses.This acquisition is expected to takeplace in 2015. The acquisition is expected to increase GEs cost per share and it will help GE obtain its goal of receiving most of its earnings through industrial businesses. (GE Reports Third-Quarter 2014, 2013) A balance analysis is a quantitative analysis of information contained in a guilds financial statements. (Definition of Ratio Analysis, 2014) It is employ to evaluate various aspects of a companys operating and financial performance such as its efficiency, liquidity, profitability and solvency (Definition of Ratio Analysis, 2014). This is a great tool to calculate how the company is doing over a authorized amount of time.GEs efficiency ratio for days inventory, for example, was 54.76, however in 2013, it was 77.36. Receivables perturbation was another huge improvement from 2004, at 12.21, to 2013 at 6.81(General Electric Co, 2014). GEs short condition debt has decreased from 21.02% in 2004 to 13.24% in 2013 howev er the long term debt has increased, with 28.41% in 2004, and 36.97% in 2013. The current ratio has also improved with 2.39 in 2004, and 2.53 in 2013, this is a big win for GE (General Electric Co, 2014) This shows that the company is more able to pay debts and short term obligations than when it first began (Current Ratio Definition, 2014).Financial Viability and Ratio Analysis of Bank of AmericaIn order to know the financial health of an organization, it is imperative to know the organizations financial viability. We have looked at the financial viability for Bank of America and find it to be a viable company. We looked at Bank of Americas Return on Investment (ROI) which is calculated by looking at Bank of Americas periodical return compared to the total investment we need for a project. Bank of Americas Revenue was 98,353 million with Net Income at 5,222 million for the year ending 2013. Total liabilities were 1,884,932 million with 2,123,613 million in total assets (Bank of Am erica, 2014). Bank of Americas operative capital ratio is 1.126 which shows us that is able to have enough cash to repay debts. Bank of Americas debt ratio is .8876 which shows that this company can repay long term debt. These few ratios help us see that this business is able to generate enough surpluses in order to meet their recurring payment obligation which also verifies the companys viability (Bank of America, 2014).Business CycleA business cycle is the growth or decline in an economy. As of today the economy has grown from the recession in September 2008 that left many people without jobs, the well-worn market plunges and many companies going bankrupt and closing. Furthermore, the goal of economic policy is to keep the economy in a healthy growth rate that create jobs for people, but slow enough to avoid inflation. some factors can cause an economy to spin out of control, or settle into depression. The most important, over-riding factor is boldness of investors, consumers, businesses and politicians. The economy grows when there is confidence in the future and in policymakers, and does the opposite when confidence drops (Amadeo, 2014). Recent banking trends aver subtle indications about the business cycle. The financial crisis in 2008 stemmed from explosive monetary policy during the antecedent period (Hofschire, 2014).During the financial crisis in 2008 it left a lot of companies wondering if they will ever rule back to where they were before the market plunged. Financial institutions, such as Bank of America made it delicate for home buyers to take out loans to purchase properties. Although the housing market dropped, it was harder to qualify for loans because the qualifications were stricter. Furthermore, home owners were in top of the inning loans because they could not afford to pay back the loans. During the financial crisis in 2008 General Electric (GE) was one of the major companies that produced numerous of appliances, such as refrigera tors, stoves, microwaves and much more.However, they took a huge financial loss as their earnings started to decrease as sale prices declined (Smith, 2008). General Electric said profits from its money and commercial pay divisions should total $2 billion in the third quarter, down nearly 20 percent from $2.45 billion in the second quarter (Smith, 2008). General Electric Capital is a large contributor to the companys world(a) earnings. Furthermore, General Electric had to give up some assets to raise their capital. As of today GE is one of the largest companies, which generate home appliances and they were able to overcome the financial crisis and regain their financial earnings.ConclusionThis report shows that both GE and Bank of America are seeing steady growth and are slowly convalescent from the recession. Both GE and Bank of Americaseem to be in the expansion part of the business cycle as sales would project. GE has improved in its current ratio between 2004 and 2013, and Bank of American still needs to improve its current ratio. Both companies have seen an increase in many areas of their financials and plan to continue to increase sales and profits.ReferencesAlstom Board Chooses GE Offer. (2014, June 21). Retrieved November 29, 2014, from www.businesswire.com http//www.businesswire.com/news/home/20140621005026/en/Alstom-Board-Chooses-GE-Offer.VHu2r-8g9es Amadeo, K. (2014). What Is the Business Cycle? Retrieved November 30, 2014, from useconomy.about.com http//useconomy.about.com/od/glossary/g/business_cycle.htm Bank of America. (2014, May). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.forbes.com http//www.forbes.com/companies/bank-of-america/ Current Ratio. (2014). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.investopedia.com http//www.investopedia.com/terms/c/currentratio.asp GE news. (2014, October 17). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.genewsroom.com www.genewsroom.com/press-releases/ge-reports-3q%E2%80%9914-operating-eps-038-6-3q-industrial-profit-9-operating- margins-90 General Electric. (2014, May). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.forbes.com http//www.forbes.com/companies/general-electric/ General Electric. (2014, November 28). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from financials.morningstar.com http//financials.morningstar.com/ratios/r.html?t=GE Ratio Analysis. (2014). Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.investopedia.com http//www.investopedia.com/terms/r/ratioanalysis.asp Schire, D. H. (2014, February 28). March business cycle update. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from www.fidelity.com https//www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/economy-update-march-14 Smith, A. (2008, October 9). Wall Street crisis hits GE. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from money.cnn.com http//money.cnn.com/2008/10/09/news/companies/ge_earnings/ Walker, A., McEntire, L. (2014). Investor Relations. Retrieved November 29, 2014, from www.bankofamerica.com http//investor.bankofamerica.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=71595p=irol-newsArticleID

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Why I Want to Become a Teacher Essay Example for Free

Why I Want to experience a Teacher EssayEveryone has gotten to where they are in life because they had a instructor. By definition, a teacher is someone who gives instruction and communicates skills. The lives most impacted by teachers are those of our children. Teaching makes a difference in children, because it gives them tools to help them be successful in the future. Our children are our future, and they need to be prepared for the future in order to be successful in the working world. The future of our communities and even our nation lies in the work force of our children. The quality of men and women we develop will impact the future of this nation. Therefore, I see pedagogy as one of the best ways I can help create a greater tomorrow for our great nation.I know that teaching in the school setting will be gainsay as well but I am up for it. Although the main commitment to my learners will be to teach the school curriculum in a way to meet the required objectives, I w ould alike to use of variety of strategies and be creative in my teaching plans. I hope to arouse the students curiosity and foster a desire to continue to learn. Another commitment that I speak up is equally important is to recognize each student as an individual. Although we will be teaching subjects we withal teaching children. I want to understand their academic abilities, personalities, and who will be their main support in regards to school. I want to know what motivates them to do their best and what will hold them back.I believe that teaching is an essential and noble profession. Next to parents, teachers are the most important foundational element in our society. Everything important begins in childhood, especially knowledge, self-knowledge, resilience, and character. Proper preparation is fundamental to living a full, rewarding life. Without self-knowledge, children may follow ill-timed paths and end up far from their true callings lost, sad, and unfulfilled. Without r esilience, the storms and challenges of life can turn children from their highest path, leaving them far from who they tycoon have been. Finally, character is the intangible force that raises society as a whole, minimizes shocks and collisions between people, and balances self-interest and neighborly good. Ideally, all of this education starts in the home but often the parents themselves may be inadequately apt in thisregard. School is a necessary complement to and supplement of this learning.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Insurance Management Project Report Essay Example for Free

insurance policy focal point Project Report EssayProblem DefinitionUnderstanding the problem in the existing organization finding requested solution is the most important activity while planning the jut. Hence the maturation a new system we must ache through problem associated with the current system. In the ancient system, the substance abuser was maintaining the records like Policy Holder Details, Policy details, Premium Payments, Agent Details, Compevery Details and agitate in the paper sheets. Searching Problem Searching is very difficult in file.Accessing, Deleting and Adding Problems as the user has to do it manually. The retrieval of data is time consuming, as the user has to appear the whole file unconstipated for a single data. For updating record the user has to search particular record first and do the updates which are time consuming which was a big problem. The data that has to be deleted should to a fault be crosschecked as it might lead to missing data. Objective and Scope of the projectOur main aim of the project is to get the correct information about particular Policy Holder, Agents, Policy or redress Company and to stiffen human efforts. The user can maintain all the records about Policy Holder Details, Agent Details, Insurance Company, Policy Details, Premium Payment Details and Bill and save it in the database. The user can also maintain the record of his Policy Holder.The user can easily insert and retrieve the record without any training. The searching is made easy. The user can search the record by Date, Policy Holder name, point number, etc. In this we have used crystal report for business objects as per the clients requirement. In crystal report the user see the information about the particular Patient.ConclusionThe Insurance Management System process made computerized to reduce human errors and to increase the efficiency. The main focus of this project is to lessen human efforts. The maintenance of the records is mad e efficient, as all the records are stored in the SQL database, through which data can be retrieved easily. The navigation control is provided in all the forms to navigate through the large arrive of records. If the numbers of records are very large then user has to just type in the search string and user gets the results immediately. The editing is also made simpler. The user has to just type in the undeniable field and press the update button to update the desired field.

Monday, April 8, 2019

This coursework assignment is to investigate resistance Essay Example for Free

This coursework assignment is to investigate justification EssayTo investigate it, we must first understand it. What is it? Where does it come from? The most fundamental basis to understand resistance is to know about modern. Electric current is a flow of electric automobile charges. Like water supply supply in a heating system, the charged particles atomic number 18 already in the film directors. Most electrons in a conductor (e. g. copper) are held tightly to their atoms, but each atom in a conductor has a couple of electrons that are loosely held.Since the electrons are negatively charged, an atom that loses an electron is left with a arbitrary charge (since the protons remain), and is called an ion. This means that copper (and all similar conductors) consist of a lattice of ions surrounded by issue electrons. The ions can only vibrate in their current state, but the electrons can keep helter-skelter throughout the lattice. All metals (conductors) are made this w ay. When a battery is attached to a metal, the free electrons are repelled by the negative terminal and attracted by the positive one.They still move randomly, but they all move slowly in the similar direction with a steady drift velocity. This is a flow of charge, an electric current. Current is thrifty in Amps (I). A simple circuit through a conductor looks desire this The greater the resistance of a component, the harder it is for charge to flow through it. In a conductor with a higher resistance, the electrons turn in more(prenominal) collisions with the ions than if they were flowing through a conductor with dismantle resistance. If there is a potential difference (Voltage, V) crossways a conductor, a current (Amps, I) goes through it.But when you apply the alike(p) potential difference crossways different conductors, the currents are different. For example, if we put a potential difference of 230V across a kettle and toaster, the current in the kettle is 10A, whereas the current in the toaster is only 5A. The current is smaller in the toaster so it must have a higher resistance. Resistance is measured in ohms (? ) and has this definition The resistance of a conductor is the ratio of potential difference applied across it, to the current passing through it So the formula for resistance is Resistance, R = Potential difference across the conductor, V (volts)(? ) Current through the conductor, I (amps) or R = V or V = I R I As the potential difference doubles, so does the current. This means the resistance of a telegram is constant. This rule was discovered by Georg Ohm and is true for all metals at a constant temperature. As spacious as a metal is kept at a constant temperature, the current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it This is ohms law, and it can help us to make it good results. There are a number of factors affecting how much resistance a conductor has. They are theseType of substantive D ifferent conductors have different levels of resistivity. E. g. Copper has a much lower resistance than nichrome. Length A short wire has less resistance than a long one. The free electrons have to travel a farther distance in the long wire, passing between more ions. This increases the chances of an electron hitting one, therefore there are more collisions, thus a higher resistance. cross-section(a) area A thin wire has more resistance than a thick one. This is simple overdue to the fact that more electrons can flow through a thicker wire, similar to the way more water can pass through a wider pipe.Temperature In metals, a hot wire has more resistance than a cold one. This is because, as a metal heats up, the ions vibrate more. This increases the chance of them colliding with electrons, thus there is a higher resistance. The resistance of a wire at constant temperature depends on its dimensions, and the material from which it is made. Every material has a property called its re sistivity (p). It is measured in ohm metres (? m). The higher the resistivity, the harder it is to charge flow through the material. Conductors have low resistivities and insulators have very high ones.If we know the resistivity, the cross-sectional area and the length of a specimen material, we can calculate its resistance thus Resistance, R = Resistivity, p (? m) x length, l (m) or R = p l (? ) Cross-sectional area, A (m2) A So now that we understand what resistance what are we going to do with it? Why an experiment of course Im going to be investigating how the length of a wire affects the resistance. I will try passing the same voltage through different lengths of the same wire and see how length affects the resistivity. Prediction I predict that the longer the wire is, the higher the resistance.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

My Career Goal Essay Example for Free

My Career Goal EssayI always claim myself a question of what I want to be and what goals I am breathing out to achieve intravenous feeding years later.Four years later, it is hoped that I can get the near out of my education, becoming much independent and mature. Four years later, it is hoped that I can be a journalist who contribute as much value as I can to my city.My first c completelying goal is to be a journalist who writes for newspaper. A journalist who sees and tells the truth with honesty. Reporting the news completely. Presenting each(prenominal) sides of viewpoints unbiasedly. Seeking more sources when indite a news so as to be sure of fourfold sides are presented.Secondly, helping the worldly concern edict but the regime will become one of my master(prenominal) concern. It is hoped that I can be independent from the organisation. Keeping a watchful eye on the government and making representation to the government about the unjust policy or measure. Ther efore, I can carry off the government as to be sure that they do their work properly.Moreover, bridge the gap between society and real life is in addition my concern. Passionate on providing the information of the causes of the accident so as to enter the public awareness of the things going on the social issues.Finally, sincerely hope that I can produce on the mission which elysian by principle of freedom, of information, of expression in my career life with all attempt, determination and faith in justice.I always ask myself a question of what I want to be and what goals I am going to achieve four years later.Four years later, it is hoped that I can get the most out of my education, becoming more independent and mature. Four years later, it is hoped that I can be a journalist who contribute as much value as I can to my city.My first career goal is to be a journalist who writes for newspaper. A journalist who sees and tells the truth with honesty. Reporting the newscompletely. Presenting all sides of viewpoints unbiasedly. Seeking more sources when writing a news so as to be sure of multiple sides are presented.Secondly, helping the public society but the government will become one of my main concern. It is hoped that I can be independent from the government. Keeping a watchful eye on the government and making representation to the government about the unjust policy or measure. Therefore, I can supervise the government as to be sure that they do their work properly.Moreover, bridge the gap between society and real life is also my concern. Passionate on providing the information of the causes of the accident so as to raise the public awareness of the things going on the social issues.Finally, sincerely hope that I can hold on the mission which inspired by principle of freedom, of information, of expression in my career life with all attempt, determination and faith in justice.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Importance of Data Security and Data Safety Essay Example for Free

Importance of selective in radiation diagramation guarantor and Data Safety EssayTo prevent companies from using or headspringing on confidential information to distinct companies without the permission of the person who the selective information is about, companies will need to protect the selective information. With the popularity of the Inter brighten there argon opportunities for thieves to dislocate their own(prenominal) entropy. So the government set a law (data trade protection act) which is economic consumptiond to protect peoples rights concerning how data is practice sessiond and you also have the right to see such information and have any errors corrected. similarly system will want to cover data confidential because it will not want its competitors to get how the wrinkle is going.List the 8 principles of the Data Protection ActThe Data Protection Act says the personal data should1. Be adequate, relevant and not excessive. For suit college should move on students enlarge and details must be just what is needed and nothing more.2. Be processed in accordance with the data subject right. For guinea pig the person that the data refers to have the right to read the information about him/her and the organisation should provide stitch/her with information they need.3. Be accurate and be kept up to date. There is a duty to keep it up to date, for example to change an address when people move.4. Not be kept longer than necessary. For example it is alright to keep information for certain length of time but it would be wrong to keep information about past customers longer than a few years at most5. Be obtained and processed for expressage purposes. For example the transcription must use the data only in the authority it is described and it must not use it for any other purpose.6. Be secure. This includes keeping the information approve up and away from any unauthorised chafe. It would be wrong to leave personal data render to be vi ewed by just any wholeness.7. Not be transferred to countries outside Europe without adequate protection. Unless the country that the data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law8. Be processed passably and lawfully. For example if you put your bullion at bank no one enkindle transfer your money without your permission.(a) What is the difference between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet? (P8)Internet Are public intercommunicates that allow the drug user to use any of its facilities.Intranet and Extranet is resembling a private mesh. It is like a website that is only gravelible to the members of a business or social club. The different between Intranets and Extranet isIntranet all(prenominal)ow the members of organisation to bother the access the placement with an organisation.Extranet Allow the members of organisation to access the system from different location but only by the users who have been given access rights.(b)* What is a web browser?Is programme that can read web pages, by downloading HTML legislation and that allows the browser to interpret the code to the web page. A browser displays web pages, keeps track of where youve been, and remembers the places you want to return to, the most used browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.* Describe the role of a browser when using the Internet, Intranet and ExtranetBrowser allows the people to access information, view images, hear music and watch video, in the term of intranet and extranet the browser allows user to share documents, access databases and allow group work.* Describe the role of electronic mail when using internet communications.You can send email to an individual or to a group of people at the same time, you can create notice list so that you can write a message and send it automatically to number of people. to a fault you can send files such as pictures, word document and sound as attachments to your message.(a) List major(ip) threats to an organisat ion that could happen while using the Internet. (P9)1. Hacking (use to steal the personal details and private files of keep company)2. The scatter of viruses (use to get down or damage the important files of company)3. Internet fraud (taking credit card details from customers)4. Spay waste (is biggest threat in the reckoner system which allows aroundone to log into your information processing system and use it for their own purpose)5. netmail ( sending unwanted messages especially commercial advertising)Purpose of assignmentIn this assignment, I have to do investigate and get information on the vastness of data security and data safety. M research must be from ICT sources and non ICT sources and by using the evidence that I collect I should explain the magnificence of keeping customer information confidential, the main provision of data protection act, the role of browsers and email in internet communications, the difference between internet, intranet and extranet, the ma jor threats to organization from internet and finally a poster that explains the importance of data safety and data security. The assignment will also gather key skills portfolio evidence.M5Physical Security Use of security guards, locks, reinforced doors, windows and walls depending on what is being protected. Use of ICT to enforce security launch on doors, and protected areas of buildings i.e. swipe cards, fingerprint ID, voice recognition.Firewall This is a security device, which acts as a single entry/exit point for information and access to a computer system. All traffic must pass through the firewall and therefore a system is secure from external threats. A firewall usually sits between the intrinsic network of an organisation and access by the internet.Virus Protection It is usual for systems to have near form of anti-virus software system installed and running in the background. All files and devices introduced to the system would be scanned, any attempts to alter system files would be blocked, and notification made to the user/system administrator. Preventing the use of floppy disks is a good mode of eliminating one source of potential virus problems.Identification of Users A system of user IDs and passwords is a simple method of preventing unauthorised personnel accessing the system. These should be managed by the system administrator. With this, only some users will have access to certain programmes and data therefore increasing the level of security on sensitive data. In addition, some users may only be able to read the data and not write the data. Other users may not have the ability to delete or even to access certain files.Encryption software the data may be encrypted (coded) into a form, which can only then be decoded by the mean user. If the data falls into the wrong hands, it will be meaningless.Backups To guard against the loss of data, backups should be regularly made. These backups should be stored in a separate place, preferably in a fireproof environment.Passwords software Password protection usually involves a person typing in* A User Name to identify the person.* A Password to identify the person. He should be the only one to know what it is.Computer viruses which are programs that suppress the way computer operates without the knowledge of the user, there are huge numbers of viruses some are passing malicious with the ability to delete or damage files and programs.Some of the threats that they cause to computer systems include* Deleting data on the hard disk of the organisation computer system.* Enabling hackers to hijack the organisation system and use it for their own purposes.How do viruses spread* CDs and floppy disks containing infected documents.* Emails containing infected attachments.Hackers who gain unauthorised access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data, also gaining access to financial information about the organisation business or their customers for the pur poses of fraud.Security measures may include* Each user should be given a user name and a password.* Computer work may be logged.* Computers should be disconnected from a network when not in use.* Use a firewall a computer running software, which detects hackers dialling in to a network.junk e-mail authorised users downloading a web page or receiving an email with hidden active content that attacks the organisation system or send sensitive information to unauthorised people.Organisation can stop spreading of spam by using spam filtering softwareSpy ware is software that is placed on organisation computer when the employee visits certain websites, it is used to secretly gather information about the organisation usage and sends it back to advertiser or other interested company to tracking the organisation system use .it can also slow down or crashes the organisation computerPop up galore(postnominal) company advertisers on the Internet by using windows that pop up in the middle of computer screen to display a message. They might also open when you click a link or button on a Web site, and they might open either over or beneath the window, you wish to view. Some pop-up windows can contain inappropriate content or can be a way for employee of organisation to accidentally download dangerous software (called spyware or adware) onto organisation computer.Infringement of copyright Internet users are not allowed to copy or print some internet materials such as video, music, files and photos without the permission of copyright holder and sometimes they may have to pay a licence to do so.Theft and fraud credits card fraud for example people can steal the details on credits card and using them illegally to buy goodsSole traderA mend trader is the actual owner of a business, a sole trader also has un particular(a) liability. All the debts of the business are the debts of the owner.They can not issues shares .The whole meaning behind Sole means that she/he does not h ave partners. (e.g. electrical repair, picture framing, photography, diving instruction, retail shops, and hotels)PartnershipA Partnership can be liable for all debts, it is easy to setup, but is also inexpensive to form. Forming partnership requires an agreement that is some times called partnership agreement between two to twenty individuals which entitles them to jointly own and carry on a trader business together. A partnership is a contract between two or more persons who agree to pool talent and money and share wampum or loss.Private limited companyA Private limited company has limited liability (the shareholders cannot loose more than their master shareholdings), and a minimum of two shareholders and a maximum of fifty shareholders. It cannot offer its shares to the public. A private limited company is treated as a legal entity.Public limited companyA company which may have an unlimited number of shareholders and offer its shares to the wider public. (e.g. Cadbury and Tesc o)Multi-National companyA company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up branch offices.Tesco Characteristics* Type of company Tesco is an transnational retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited Company Plc).* Products including food and non-food business, personal finance, internet shopping, electrical items, home entertainment, toys, sports equipment, and many more.* service / lossTescos loot and Loss20052004Sales at net selling prices37,07033,557Turnover including share of joint ventures34,35331,050Less share of joint ventures turnover(379)(236)Operating profit/(loss)1,9491,735Share of operating profit/(loss) of joint ventures and associates13097Net profit/(loss) on establishment of fixed assets53(9)Profit on ordinary activities beforehand taxation1,9621,600Underlying profit before net profit/(loss) on disposal of fixed assets, integration costs and goodwill amortisation2,0291,708* coat of company Tesco operates 923 stores and empl oys 240,000 people , there are 639 branches in Great Britain and 182 in the rest of Europe* arrangement they operate in UK, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan and the Republic of Ireland* Purpose of company to create think of for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty.* Aims Built good non-food sales expanded into retailing services and exploited e-commerce successfully.* nonsubjective1. To deliver a consistently strong customer offer.2. Making their shopping trip as easy as possible.3. Constantly seeking to reduce their prices to help customer spend less.* LogoCadbury Characteristics* Type of company is an international retailer and is a publicly owned company (Public Limited Company Plc).* Products chocolate and drinks brands.* Profit / lossCadbury Profit and Loss (Millions)2006 (Millions)2005Turnover6,508.006,085.00Operating Profit / (Loss)1,003.00825.00Net Interest(188.00)(205.00)Pretax Profit843.00642.00 run Tax Profits703.00497 .00Total Dividend Paidn/an/aRetained Profit / (Loss) for the financial yearn/an/a* Size of company they operate in more than 35 countries and they employs over 55,000 people* Location Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa and Asia Pacific.* Purpose of company the organization work together to create brands people love.* Aims 1. Deliver shareowner performance.2. Ensure their capabilities are beat out in class.3. Reinforce reputation with employees and society* objective1. Responding to consumer needs quickly.2. Grow shareowner value.3. Attract and develop the best kind of people.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Consumer Buying Behavior Comparison in Marketing Strategies Essay Example for Free

Consumer Buying Behavior Comparison in Marketing Strategies EssayIn line of battle to help creating new offerings, improving communication, organizing delivery and, eventually, increasing the sale. It is important to understand the consumer buying behavior from situational, genius and social aspects. This paper will briefly discuss the marketing strategies of two giant retail incision stores, Walmart and Macys, in terms of customer buying behaviors.Macys atmospheric settings provide strong stimuli for its customers. First, every season, Macys puts up different window showcases to demonstrate its classic and artistic tastes. Also, different ambient colors be used in its shopping environment. These seasonal changes should be able to boost the sale of the fashion app arel. Secondly, Macys decorates different themes for different holidays, such as Easter, Mothers day, Halloween, Christmas, etc. the gift shopping behaviors are probable induced by these themes. Thirdly, Macys al ways plays a comfort and light background music, customers would overleap more time into shopping with a good mood as the text points out peoples moods temporarily affect their spending patterns (Tanner, J., Raymond, M. Schuster, C, 2001)On the other hand, it seems that Walmart pays a lot of attention to the shoppers record factors. First, Walmart concentrates on the idea of money saving. Walking into a Walmart, the Rollback tags with two comparing prices are everywhere.The economical shoppers would compare more on the prices. Secondly, customers who prefer one stop shopping might stupefy that Walmart, with its stock of food, toy, auto parts, etc, is more convenient than other shopping centers. Thirdly, Walmart shelves as seen on TV items and dollar items along the cashier to affect the shopping decisions. While waiting in the checkout line, customers are likely to pick up these items as they are categorized as low-involvement products.Moreover, social factors are also tumesc e considered by these two retail giants. In terms of social class, Macys focuses more on the bourgeoisie families whereas Walmart targets on the customers with standard income. Wal-Mart exclusives have a mean household income of about $57K (Scarborough Research, 2005). Also, the products, Walmart is selling, represent the main pour of a geographical culture whereas Macys might satisfy some groups with special subculture interests such as high-end golf clubs or perfumes. In sum, consumer buying behavior is a very important element in the marketing strategies of a company. Situational, personality and social factors will influence the consumer buying behavior dramatically.

Analysis of UK Commercial Law

abstract of UK Commercial LawCommercial LawDefinitionCommercial equity in England and Wales is not nonimmune to succinct categorisation as a unified consistence of im pctiality such(prenominal) as, for example, criminal rightfulness or the constabulary of torts. Goode1 has commentedThe absence of whatsoeverthing resembling a commercial messageized message code makes the question, Does Commercial Law exist? harder to come than might be imagined. If, by commercial practice of law, we mean a relatively self contained, integrated body of principles and rules peculiar to commercial transactions, then we be constrained to say that this is not to be found in England.Commercial legal commit will deal with a wide variety of subjects including the law relating to edits, consumer address, damages, appraise and partnerships. Commercial Law is and soly an amalgam of common law, ordinance and even equity.Historical Development condescension these difficulties of categorisatio n the existence of a body of law controlling mercantile life has been recognised since mediaeval times when special administrations existed for the purpose of dealing expeditiously with trade disputes. In the eighteenth century original Mansfield held sittings in the Guildhall in the City of London to hear commercial cases assisted by special panels of merchant jurymen to provide commercial expertise. When these sittings were discontinued the parties were forced back into the common law courts which proved unpopular overdue to procedural delays and the fact that the judges were often not conversant with the needs of the commercial community. Accordingly, in 1892, the Council of adjudicate recommended that in that location should be a special court to hear commercial cases and this led to the introduction in 1895 of a special commercial list in the Queens Bench surgical incision. In 1970, a special Commercial Court was established but this remains part of that division.Court S tructure and jurisdictionThe Commercial Court is subject to the Civil Procedure Rules. Part 49 and the associated Practice Direction provides that the court has jurisdiction inany case arising out of trade and commerce in general including any case relating toA business document or arrestThe export or import of goodsThe rigging of goods by land, sea, air or pipelineThe exploitation of oil and gas resourcesInsurance and reinsuranceBanking and financial workThe doing of markets and exchangesBusiness agency andArbitration.The remit of the court therefore as well represents a succinct bid of the type of disputes which might be regarded as commercial notwithstanding the vagueness of this term. However, it should be noted that the county court has infinite jurisdiction in claims in center and tort and it is mandatory for claims worth less than 15,000 to be commenced there. thusly a high volume of commercial law is administered by this court with the more valuable or complex bei ng dealt with by the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. The Chancery Division (the role of which in this regard can be summarised by its dealing with cases concerning companies and insolvency) will therefore similarly hear commercial matters. Finally, it should be noted that in addition to the Commercial Court, there is also a specially constituted Companies Court. The rationale behind the establishment of these fora is to allow the speedy resolution of commercial disputes by a body with expertise in and sympathy for the unique needs of those involved in commercial enterprise.Thus the scope and extent of commercial law is vast and full description is impossible at heart the scope of this submission. Nonetheless, it is proposed to examine certain key elements of the corpus of commercial law which characterise its principles and demonstrate its operation in practice.Sale of GoodsThis is a species of the law of ask which has long existed and been setd by common law principles . amazes have been defined2 as legally enforceable agreements which represent a vehicle for planned exchanges. Contracts for the sale of goods ar therefore subject to contract law principles but it should not be forgotten that they argon increasingly controlled by specific statutory provisions. Thus all contracts for the supply of goods now contain terms which atomic number 18 implied by statute and prescribe that they must be of a stipulated quality. The Sale of Goods displace 1979 (as amended by the Sale and Supply of Goods exertion 1994) imposes a number of requirementss.12 that the seller should have the right to sell the goods, that the goods should be free from encumbrances and that the buyer should enjoy quiet possession of thems.13 that where the goods atomic number 18 sold by description, they should corespond with that descriptions.14(2) that the goods should be of fitted qualitys.14(3) that the goods should be fit for the buyers purposes.15 that where the goods arg on sold by sample, they should correspond with that sample.Of the above, the implied term as to satisfactory quality is one of the most ofttimes litigated. The word satisfactory replaced (by the 1994) the use of the historic term merchantable in relation to quality and continues a long line of business of such a requirement in English law. Decisions in the 19th Century demonstrate a recognition by the law of the commercial expectations of a purchaser. In Gardiner v Gray3, skipper Ellenborough observed middling bluntlyThe purchaser cannot be expected to buy goods to lay them on a dunghill() trance the concept of merchantability endured, it was not until 1973 that it was the subject of statutory definition. By then, the term had become somewhat outmoded with Lord Ormrod commenting in 19764the word has fallen out of general use and largely lost its meaning, except to merchants and traders in some branches of commerce.Nonetheless, it was not until 1994 that it was replaced by somewha t less arcane terminology.An other(a) significant statutory intervention in the ability of parties to determine the contractual relationships amidst themselves relates to exemption clauses or unfair contract terms. The leading piece of polity in this field is the inequitable Contract Terms Act 1977. previous to its enactment, the courts interpreted attempts by parties to a contract to restrict or exclude their liability in the face of a breach of contract very strictly. The legislative code has now largely superseded this function. The common law lacked the ability simply to declare such a term unenforceable merely on the build that it was unfair or unreasonable (see Photo Production Ltd v Securicor Transport Ltd5) hence the need for the sometimes strained interpretation of such clauses. In broad terms the 1977 Act applies a test of profundity to such clauses in commercial contracts. Not surprisingly, this concept and the interpretation of the term has been the subject of much litigation. The Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 extend certain aspects of the 1977 code. They were implemented as a result of a European Directive and apply to terms (other than core terms in consumer contracts. They are therefore different in certain critical aspects from the 1979 Act and a comparison of the respective effects of the two reveals anomalies. It is submitted that the original legislation should now be reviewed and redrawn in order to provide a unified and consistent framework.Manufacturers and Product financial obligationWhile the above legislation applies only in contract law, it should not be overlooked that there are certain commercial situations in which the law of tort can play a part supplying an additional or alternative remedy. The statutory implied terms signalized above may conciliate the buyer to reject speculative goods and, in any event, claim prices for the breach of contract. Because this law is found upon the contract, a prob lem arises as a result of the doctrine of privity of contract which enables only the parties to a contract to sue upon it. Accordingly, the law of tort began to develop remedies for situations in which loss or damage was ca apply by a breach but the breach was not actionable in contract at the behest of the party thus injured. In the classic case of Donoghue v Stevenson6, the principle was established that in certain circumstances a manufacturer owes a duty of care to the end-user of his harvest-festival. Thus where the product is defective and causes injury, the consumer may recover against the manufactuer in negligence notwithstanding that there is no postulate contractual or other relationship between them concerning the supply of the product. Again driven by Europe, the UK passed the 1987 Consumer Protection Act in order further to regulate product liability. A claim may be brought under the Act by any soulfulness injured by a defective product. Product includes goods and eve n electricity. A product is defective for the purposes of the Act if its safety, including not only the risk of personal injury but also the risk of damage to other property is not such as persons generally are entitled to expect. It is submitted that this legislation is not only appropriate but necessary in the complex neo consumer society in which products are increasingly sophisticated and the relationship between manufacturer and end-user far more difficult to fuck than would have been the case in the nineteenth century.Consumer CreditA very significant development in commercial law in the recent age has been in respect of the protection of customers in credit transactions. In Consumer Credit Deregulation, A Review by the Director General of Fair Trading7 it was recognised that there was required a strong level of protection in a market which for umpteen centuries maybe even since ancient times has been regarded by law makers as particularly sensitive. Buyer-seller interac tions in credit markets are characterised by imbalances of information and bargaining strength between lenders and borrowers. Accordingly, in the 1970s, following the report of the Crowther Committee8 the Consumer Credit Act 1974 was enacted. The Act applies to regulate agreements which are defined as consumer credit agreements or consumer hire agreements. Despite the speech pattern on the word consumer, certain types of business credit transactions are controlled. persona 8 of the Act defines a consumer credit agreement as a personal credit agreement by which the creditor provides the debtor with credit not exceeding an amount varied by Statutory Instrument from time to time. Section 189(1) defines an individual as including a partnership or other unincorporated body of persons not consisting on the whole of bodies corporate. Thus numerous commercial business transactions (provided that they do not involve companies) are caught by the Act. The OFT Report referred to above propo sed that all business credit transactions be take from the scope of the Act but this suggestion was rejected. Conversely (and perhaps a little perversely) the present upper limit on such transactions of 25,000 heart that many genuine non-business consumers increasingly fall foreign the safety net of the Act. The operation of this type of provision in the commercial sector again serves to illustrate the difficulty of classifying commercial law as a single discrete body of regulation. The inclusion of chapters on consumer credit in most so-called commercial law textbooks plus the existence of an entirely break apart body of work purporting to deal with consumer law is illustrative of this dilemma.InsuranceThe scope of commercial law extends into many other fields of human activity. On such example is insurance. This remains essentially commercial in nature and, in many instances, can be said to stem from the basic commercial traffic of the parties. If commercial law is regarded as being based upon transactions, insurance has developed as a means of protecting those transactions and the subject-matter thereof. The modern law of insurance has developed directly from the activities of merchants principally those involved in seafaring from Italy in the fourteenth century. Merchants reached agreements between themselves to insure their ships and cargo against the risk of travel by sea. This practice was adopted in the coffee houses of London and gave birth to Lloyds the principal insurance underwriter in the world. The insurance industry has been subject to statutory regulation since the Life Insurance Companies Act 1870. The current regime is regulated by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. Interestingly, in addition to such controls, contracts of insurance where appropriate also fall under the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 discussed above.BankingBradgate9 places banking at the very heart of commercial lawThe banking system play s an essential part in commercial activity in a developed economy. The modern bank provides a wide range of services to both business and private customers. The provision of such services is itself an aspect of commercein addition, banks provide essential services which underpin all other commercial activityBanking activities in the UK have long been regulated by regulated by statute with important developments occurring in the Bills of Exchange Act 1882 and the Cheques Act 1957.International TradeAlthough this submission has focussed perforce upon UK domestic law, it would be erroneous to conclude without acknowledging the international element which represents so great a analogy of commercial activity and gives rise to a consequent need for regulation. In this regard a tuberosity should be drawn between two possible uses of the term international trade law. First, it is used to describe the law controlling the relationships between the parties involved in international trade tra nsactions. Second, it may describe the body of rules which govern relationships between states and regulate the use between states of devices such as tariffs to control imports which are subject to such international treaties as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Works on commercial law habitually focus upon the English law applicable to international transactions. A great many contracts used in such international transactions contain a standard clause requiring the contract to be governed by English Law with the result that the Commercial Court in London is frequently called upon to adjudicate upon agreements that have been made between one or more parties located outside the jurisdiction. The UK is a party to the Hague Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods which is given effect in English law by the Uniform Law on International Sales Act 1967. That Act is applicable to contracts where the contract itself stipulates that it should apply. In practice, few contracts take the opportunity to do so with the result that international sales contracts which are governed by English law fall to be determined according to the principles of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 thus returning us to the outset of this discussion.ConclusionThus the scope and extent of the law which might be grouped under the heading of commercial is seen to be vast in reach and divers in type. Detailed description is therefore beyond the limit of a submission of this length. However, an examination of the broad bollix section of topics discussed above reveals an enduring theme. In all aspects of commercial law the focus is upon transactions. Some commercial law such as the sale of goods legislation regulates such transactions directly. Other areas such as the law relating to banking and insurance concern the mechanisms that are necessarily ancillary to such transactions. Others again, such as product liability, stem from the consequences of transactions even where the party seeking to avail himself of the law was not a direct participant in such a transaction.BibliographyBradgate, Commercial Law, (3rd Ed., 2000)Goode, Commercial Law (2nd Ed., 1995)Poole, Textbook on Contract Law (7th Ed., 2004)Treitel, The Law of Contract (11th Ed., 2003)www.hmso.gov.ukLexis/NexisWestlaw1Footnotes1 Commercial Law (2nd Ed., 1995), p.12052 Poole, J., Textbook on Contract Law, (7th Ed., 2004), p.13 (1815) 4 Camp 1444 Cehave NV v Bremer Handelgesellschaft mbH 1976 QB 44 p.805 1980 AC 8276 1937 AC 5627 OFT (1994), para.1.88 Report of the Committee on Consumer Credit (1971) Cmd 45969 Commercial Law, (3rd Ed., 2000)