Saturday, August 31, 2019

An In-Depth Analysis of David Suzuki Essay

With a booming voice David Suzuki broadcasted to the world; â€Å"The human brain now holds the key to our future. We have to recall the image of the planet from outer space; a single entity in which air, water, and continents are interconnected. That is our home† (as cited in Huggan, 2008, p. 188). This quotation of Suzuki is very insightful to his personality as it displays the seriousness and passion that he places on protecting the environment and his belief that humans are the key to saving our planet. At the age of 76 he has many accomplishments: a vast and encompassing education, a 30-year broadcasting career, and developing a successful foundation. In order to achieve such success Suzuki had to be an effective leader, he did this through his confidence, locus of control, intelligence, Theory X leading and utilizing his personal power. Suzuki is an outstanding teacher; he attains this through being an exceptional leader. On March 24 in 1936 in the port city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Sestu and Kaoru gave birth to a beautiful baby boy: David Suzuki. It was unknown at the time what a monumental day this was for the world. In years to come, Suzuki would flourish to be a prominent activist and environmentalist. Suzuki’s growth into his leadership roll took years of education. In 1961 he completed a PhD in Zoology from the University of Chicago. Following his education he authored 52 books. Among these books was the famous textbook â€Å"Introduction to Genetic Analysis† which was published in 1976 (Huggan, 2008, p. 188). The textbook was so successful it was translated into seven other languages: Italian, Spanish, Greek, Indonesian, Arabic, French, and German. Alongside his writing career, Suzuki has also been a very successful broadcaster. He started on the television show Suzuki on Science, where he educated children on biological and environmental sciences. He continued to do radio shows as well as television. In 1979, Suzuki hosted the very popular television series The Nature of Things which was viewed in over 40 nations. Through this series Suzuki was able to bring light to a great number of serious issues and educate people on environmental concerns. In 1985 the hit series A Planet for the Taking averaged 1.8 million views per episode providing him with a large audience to warn the many flaws in society. Over the past thirty years of broadcasting, Suzuki has become a well know â€Å"Canadian campaigner and activist† (Huggan, 2008, p. 188). 2 Not only is Suzuki a successful writer and broadcaster, but in 1990 he launched the David Suzuki Foundation. His foundation is one of his most recognized humanitarian accomplishments. The mission of the foundation is to â€Å"protect the diversity of nature and humanity’s quality of life† (Huggan, 2008, p. 188). It is through the phenomenal work of this foundation that David Suzuki became â€Å"recognized as a world leader in sustainable ecology† (Huggan, 2008, p. 188). The foundation has had many projects focusing on climate change, health, wildlife and habitat, and fresh water. Suzuki is always expressive about his vision for his children and grandchildren’s worlds. Through the foundation, he is trying to create â€Å"sustainability with in a generation† (Marchant, 2008, p. 44). Suzuki wants everyone to take ownership for his or her actions and the effect they will have on the future. The theory that he preaches is that if we can make our own generation sustainable, and each generation does the same, then the world will flourish and all our descendants will have a future (Marchant, 2008, p. 44). The David Suzuki Foundation is still growing at an exponential rate 22 years after its conception. A leader can possess many qualities, traits, and styles. David Suzuki demonstrates successful leadership as he directs the public and his organization along the path of saving the environment. Of the nine traits of effective leadership, he clearly displays self-confidence, locus of control, integrity, and intelligence. Suzuki is a Theory X leader who uses personal power to influence his followers. Suzuki’s self-confidence is evident through his style of speech. Through his bold style and particular choice in words his â€Å"self assurance in [his] judgement† is evident (Lussier & Achua, 2011, p. 38). When asked about the future by Rothschild, he bravely stated that â€Å"if there are still human beings around, they’ll curse us for two things: nuclear weapons and TV† (2008, p. 53). His conviction and belief in the possibility of humans being extinct proves the confidence he has in his judgement of the destructive path the world is on. Suzuki’s assurance is also very evident when he refers to himself later in the interview as being part of the â€Å"most distinguished group of scientists† (as cited in Rothschild, 2008, p. 53). This is a very clear demonstration of his confidence. In a 2003 interview with David Leibl, Suzuki made the brash statement that â€Å"if we carry on it is going to get a hell of a lot worse† (p. 18). Through his word choice of ‘hell’, you can feel his pure conviction and strength behind his words. In all the speeches given by Suzuki his confidence seeps out of every word, this makes him an easy man to trust and follow. The traits of Suzuki’s locus of control and integrity are both very prominent by the way he takes ownership as a part of the environment’s degradation. When discussing the current climate he does not exclude himself from everyone but uses statements such as; â€Å"if we don’t make the right decisions now, we’re going to determine the future of humanity† (as cited in Rothschild, 2008, p. 53). In this statement, he includes both himself and the public as part of the problem. This demonstrates an internal locus of control by stating that people’s actions produce the future outcome. According to Lussier and Achua (2011), integrity is closely related to honesty (p. 39). When speaking with Leibl, Suzuki stated †Å"we depend on clean air, clean water, clean soil and clean energy† (2003, p. 18). This raw statement displays his honesty through its simplicity and lack of embellishment. By being clear and factual his sincerity and truthfulness is incredibly visible; this builds trust in his followers and allows Suzuki to be the effective leader that he is. In order to be a successful leader, one must be knowledgeable. The â€Å"cognitive ability to think critically† is Lussier and Achua’s definition of intelligence as it pertains to leadership (2011, p. 40). Suzuki is a great leader because his extensive education. As an academic, Suzuki comprehends the scientific world and all of its current research, however his intelligence extends beyond that and allows him to portray all that he learns in a straightforward way to the public. In discussion with Leibl, Suzuki states that â€Å"we’ve changed the biological and physical make up of the plant† (2003, p. 18). Through this simple sentence he was able to convey the severity of the research in a way everyone could understand. He is able to apply environmental science to real life problems and educate the public. Suzuki’s intelligence is also apparent through his frustration that the public â€Å"no longer thinks about the interconnectedness of everything† (as cited in Leibl, 2003, p. 18). As an environmentally conscience and intelligent figure, he considers all his choices and their effect on the bigger picture. Before getting into his car to drive to the store, Suzuki considers the ramifications then decides to ride his bicycle (Leibl, 2003, p. 18). Through his understanding of the scientific world and his ability to translate it to the public Suzuki’s intelligence is an essential asset to his leading capabilities. Suzuki leads with a slightly more traditional style. He has a â€Å"negative, pessimistic view† of his followers, which is Lussier and Achua’s definition of a Theory X leader (2011, p. 110). Suzuki’s little respect for others’ intelligence is evident by his exclamation that â€Å"limitless resources are a fools dream† after Marchant presented him with an economist’s prediction of space being a future resource (2008, p. 44). He then proceeded to explain his theory of preserving our current environment. His complete disregard for an alternative plan proves Suzuki’s feelings of superiority to his followers and need to micromanage the tasks. In another instant, Suzuki questions the scientific competency of Americans. He stated, â€Å"the fact that in America you’re still arguing over issues like intelligent design versus evolution is a sign of scientific illiteracy† (as cited in Rothschild, 2008, p. 53). Suzuki’s statement was both disrespectful and pessimistic toward the Americans. Suzuki is very progressive when attacking environmental issues, however his leading style reflects his age as he is a traditional Theory X leader. When leading, one must have influence over his or her followers. Suzuki uses personal power to control and motivate his followers. His authority derives from his persona, as â€Å"charismatic leaders have personal power† (Lussier & Achua, 2011, p 110). A typical tactic of influential speaking is to use repetition. When interviewed by Marchant, Suzuki said â€Å"let’s look ahead a generation. Let’s imagine a Canada where air is clean†¦.Let’s imagine a Canada covered in forest† (2008, p. 45). His speech was very charismatic through its positive uplifting nature, the repetition, as well as through the inclusive ‘let’s’. Another proven tactic of creating influence is to build community with your followers. When speaking with Rothschild, Suzuki claimed â€Å"I’m one person. I’m not going to save the world and change its direction. But if there are millions and millions of insignificant people like me †¦ there could be a irresistible force† (2008, p. 53). This declaration is very significant as is binds people through creating a mutual goal and builds momentum behind his cause. Through his use of repetition, community building, and uplifting word selection, Suzuki’s charisma is evident. With a deep routed passion, Suzuki tackles environmental issues though educating the public of the changes they must make. In his lifetime, he has achieved greatness through his extensive education, 30-year broadcasting career, and developing a thriving foundation. Suzuki excels as a leader because of his confidence, locus of control, intelligence, Theory X leading, and demonstrating hi s personal power. References Huggan, G. (2008). Suzuki on Suzuki. Canadian Literature, (197), 188-189. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Leibl, D. (2003). The Venerable David Suzuki. Canadian Dimension, 37(1), 18. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Lussier, R. N., & Achua, D. B. A. (2011). Leadership (Custom Edition). Toronto: Nelson Education. Marchant, J. (2008). Special beyond growth: Interview with David Suzuki. New Scientist, 199(2678), 44-45. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Rothschild, M. (2011). David Suzuki. Progressive, 74(12), 53-54. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Lord of the flies comparison Essay

Throughout the course of the two novels, Oliver Twist and Lord of the Flies, the child characters are forced to assume adult roles because they have been isolated from, or excluded by society. The change the children undergo, particularly in Lord of the Flies could be described as ‘growing up’, obtaining experience and knowledge beyond their years, or a loss of innocence. One of the main ways in which children in these novels assume adult roles is through the way they attempt to govern themselves. This is particularly evident in Lord of the Flies as the boys are forced into a situation many of that age dream of; living without adult supervision. This quickly loses its appeal as the boys realise they have to establish some kind of rule and democracy, they elect a leader and soon something akin to a hierarchy is established, much like that of a real Western society. There is also a link to old tribal methods of establishing order, for example the Conch, which is similar to a Native American talking stick, which you had to possess to speak at a meeting and it was passed around so everyone had the opportunity to speak. However, the boys attempts to establish a society with a set of British values such as having a ‘stiff upper lip’ and conducting yourself like a gentleman fails somewhat as they begin to retreat into a primitive state of mind, competing with each other for survival. Jack initially claims that the boys are â€Å"not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything†. However as a divide appears amongst the group, led by Jack and Ralph, it becomes evident that Jack’s initial desire for order has gone as he and his tribe repeatedly chant â€Å"Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood! † In contrast to this, as savagery begins to take over the majority of the boys, Ralph begins to crave law and order; â€Å"the attraction of wildness had gone. His mind skated to a consideration of a tamed town where savagery could not set foot. † It is possible to argue that both Oliver and other boys his age such as the Artful Dodger and Charley Bates are also forced into having to govern themselves, as they have to work and provide for themselves at such a young age. The governing bodies such as â€Å"the Board† are portrayed as faceless beings who we are encouraged not to trust as they hold Oliver’s fate in their hands. It is suggested throughout the novel that men in positions of power are often not particularly good role models; Sikes and Fagin are outlaws who use children to commit petty crimes on their behalf; â€Å"the Board† and Mr. Bumble fail to hold Oliver’s best interests at heart as they put him in positions where he is abused, mistreated and left uncared for. The representation of adults is not completely negative in Oliver Twist, as it is in Lord of the Flies which draws parallels between the boys governing methods and that of the adult government of the time. The upper class adults in Oliver such as Mr. Brownlow are represented in a positive light as he, unlike Fagin and Mr. Bumble treats Oliver with care which means he no longer has to fend for himself. This Christian charity is only shown through Mr. Brownlow and the people who care for Oliver after he is shot, being forced to break into a house by Bill Sikes. Hierarchy in Victorian times often dictated how a person was treated. Oliver is particularly poorly treated as his mother is seen to be without a wedding ring. On the other hand, in Lord of the Flies, there is an initial attempt by the boys to establish democracy and equality through use of the conch to call meetings. However, this begins to fail as the group divides. The â€Å"savages† move to the other side of the island and â€Å"the world, that understandable and lawful world, was slipping away†. Throughout the book, Golding repeatedly describes the children’s innate sense of wrong-doing as the influence of â€Å"the old life†. Despite a lack of authority figures or â€Å"grown-ups†, the boys seem to possess knowledge of the difference between right and wrong. The boys sometimes throw stones at one another, but they often â€Å"aim to miss†. In one situation, when fun and games become too serious, a boy sits in the middle of a circle being pelted with stones but â€Å"around the squatting child was the protection of parents and school and policemen and the law. † However as their society begins to fall apart there are conflicts in the established hierarchy between elected chief Ralph and the rebellious Jack, they lose this sense which results in the murder of Simon and Piggy. Jack’s tribe then hunt pigs, and ultimately Ralph, in their pursuit of power. This was despite Jack’s initial failure to kill a pig because of â€Å"the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh†. This loss of innocence is evident at the end of the novel; â€Å"Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy. † It is often the influence of adults that force Oliver and his companions to grow up. Fagin and Sikes use the boys as minions to commit petty crimes such as theft as, even if they are caught, the two men will not be traceable. During this period children were used for such things, as well as other dangerous and demeaning jobs such as chimney sweeping. It is evident that the wellbeing of the child was not considered by their ‘owners’ and confrontation existed in society between boys and men, as the adults exploited them for money and slave labour;†the man against the child for a bag of gold†. Throughout the two novels the characters evolve and are influenced by the society and events around them. Oliver is described as having experience beyond his years and over the course of the novel he begins to realise more and more about the cruelty of society. He is described as being â€Å"too well accustomed to suffering, and had suffered too much where he was, to bewail the prospect of a change very severely. † This shows that he has gradually come to accept that he has been rejected by society, and he is doomed to live in poverty for what he believes will be a short life. This emphasises his loss of innocence as a child of his age should not be in such a situation. The boys portrayed in chapter twelve of Lord of the Flies are very different characters to those innocently swimming in the lagoon in chapter three; they have become tribal savages who have hunted and killed animals and even their fellow boys in order to survive. Also, the severed sow’s head represents the influence of human suffering on childhood innocence, as it is impaled on a stick in a clearing which had previously been a place of peace and tranquillity, where Simon had innocently sat amongst nature in chapter three. The influence of society from the boys old life was initially evident, but soon they descend into an underworld of murky morals; â€Å"In his other life Maurice had received chastisement for filling a younger eye with sand. Now, though there was no parent to let fall a heavy hand, Maurice still felt the unease of wrong-doing†. The theme of civilization is also evident throughout the two novels. In Lord of the Flies the boy’s intentions are initially very civil, as they use the conch to bring order to their discussions in an attempt to create a fair democracy during their stay on the island. However, this civil attitude doesn’t last and is soon replaced by one of savagery. The moment when Piggy is killed by the falling rock is a very symbolic as it results in the conch being smashed and Piggy’s glasses being destroyed. The conch was a symbol of democracy, which was crumbling under pressure from Jack and his determination to turn to savagery. Also, Piggy’s glasses were a symbol of civilization as they are stereotypically worn by intelligent people. Furthermore, they were used to make fire and their loss results in them no longer being able to do so. Therefore, this event symbolises the final depletion of society, morals and law and order. In Oliver Twist, the line between civilization and savagery is not so clear, as it is suggested that civilization itself can be savage in the sense that many of the people in positions of authority are not concerned about the people their decisions affect. It is often suggested in Oliver Twist that people in high ranking positions are not trustworthy and are not role models, whereas in Lord of the Flies after a long period unsupervised on the island, the boys begin to desire an adult influence to guide them; Piggy expresses a wish that his â€Å"auntie was here†, while Ralph also believes that if an adult was there they would know what to do, and would be able to help them to agree and survive. This links to social hierarchy, which also plays a part in the way the children in the two novels adapt. Oliver is clearly resigned to the fact that he will never be given opportunities to better himself because of his social class, and his mother is not properly cared for when giving birth to him by Mr Bumble and Mrs Mann when it is noted that there is â€Å"no wedding ring, I see, Ah! Good night! † this shows that as Oliver is, to their knowledge, an illegitimate child he and his mother are not thought of as important enough to care for. On the rare occasions Oliver finds courage to ask for more care, or for help in his suffering, he is accused of being â€Å"the ungratefullest and worst-disposed boy as ever I see† by Mr Bumble. Despite Mr Bumble’s higher social status, and position of authority he and the other powerful figures fail to help Oliver out of his situation. This reflects the failure of society and charity to help the poor. The collapse of social hierarchy and civilization is much less subtle in Lord of the Flies, as they lose their sense of moral values and return to a primitive lifestyle with no rules as they battle for survival. There is a suggestion that this reflects the erosion of society and the way in which the government have failed to preserve civilized values. Furthermore, in Lord of the Flies, the idea that children are the future is fore grounded and questioned. The novel has been described as a political satire as it portrays government as children making childlike errors. It is possible to draw parallels between, Simon and Oliver. They both represent innocence and human goodness as Simon is depicted in the clearing in chapter 3 in a scene of natural tranquillity. Simon’s childlike innocence and naivety is a theme throughout the book, and he is described as having â€Å"eyes so bright they had deceived Ralph into thinking him delightfully gay and wicked†. Oliver also possesses an innate sense of hope despite his desperate situation. When he is shot and dying he â€Å"stirred and smiled in his sleep, as though these marks of pity and compassion had awakened some pleasant dream of a love and affection he had never known†. In conclusion, Oliver Twist and Lord of the Flies both depict children in their struggle for survival against a society dominated by adults; a situation which is summed up by Fagin as â€Å"the man against the child, for a bag of gold†. On the other hand, in Lord of the Flies, the threat to the boy’s survival is largely caused by the lack of the very same society. It is necessary for Oliver and the stranded boys in Lord of the Flies to grow up emotionally, although this is not portrayed as a positive thing as the boys gradually lose their innocence. This process is evident in Ralph, as he begins the novel as â€Å"old enough, twelve years and a few months, to have lost the prominent tummy of childhood; and not yet old enough for adolescence†, and ends the novel weeping for his loss of innocence and the death of his friends.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Bus Week Dis

Self- esteem and self-efficacy are two phases often time mistaking with each other, different but closely related. As defined by Webster Dictionary, self efficacy is defined as how confident a person is in his or her own abilities, either in general or directed toward a specific task or activity. Self-esteem is more a person's idea of his or her own self-worth, which can be related or unrelated to his or her abilities. The key word that separates the two is idea. In self efficacy a person knows his or her ability, Aback dated, â€Å"The expectation that you will succeed evolves over a series of years.Where as with self esteem it is all in their head, high self esteem or low self esteem. Example of self efficacy; Game 6 of the NAB finals, 4th quart game tied with 4. 2 seconds remaining ,without thinking about it, Lebanon James shoots a three pointer with two defenders in his face to win the game. A shot he had be making all series. Same scenario, Lebanon James hesitates and thinks ab out shooting the three pointer, a decision based on his self worth as to how he has performed throughout the series.The dynamics of how self esteem affects self efficacy is, self efficacy reflects a person's belief about his or her ability to successfully complete a task (Aback, 2012). Well in Odder for this to work that persons self esteem has to be high. There is no correlation between low self esteem and self efficacy. A person with high self esteem welcomes the challenge to exhibit their ability to succeed and with a proven track record that fuels their self efficacy to get the task completed. My friends are external forces the impact my self efficacy.For example, I have been singing since I first learn to talk. Every time I open my mouth to sing they continue to boost my confidence by say you have an amazing voice which in turn has developed me a high self esteem. References â€Å"Self esteem. â€Å"Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary copyright

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Biological Oxygen Transport Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Biological Oxygen Transport - Essay Example The chemical reactions thus require enzymes to speed up their reaction. Most of the enzymes require metallic entities to help them function to their full capacity. Metallic ions like Zinc and Magnesium provide biological enzymes with good acid capability. Thus, the enzymes that are used for acid base reactions use magnesium and zinc at their active centers. In addition, inorganic compounds like sodium and potassium are required by living organism to create a potential difference across cell membrane. Unequal distribution of sodium and potassium ions across cell membrane help initiate an action potential. Hemoglobin is an iron containing oxygen transport metalloprotein that is found in the red blood cells of vertebras (Anthea, Human Biology And Health). Its structure exhibits characteristics of both quaternary and tertiary structures of protein (Kessel, 122 Print). Most amino acids present in the hemoglobin are alpha helices and are joined together by non-helical structures. Hydrogen bonds present in the helical structure stabilize the helical units and give hemoglobin molecule its specific shape (Hemoglobin Tutorial, University of Massachusetts Amherst) The hemoglobin molecule has a protein part globin to which a small iron containing group heme. The heme consists of a charged iron ion that is contained in a heterocyclic ring. This heterocyclic ring is known as porphyrin and it consists of four pyrrole molecules linked together with iron bound in the center (Hemoglobin-School of Chemistry, Bristol University, ). The iron ion is the oxygen-binding site of hemoglobin. The iron ion coo rdinates with four molecules of nitrogen. The iron ion is strongly bound to the protein via imidazole ring of the F8 histidine residue below porphyrin ring. A sixth position bind oxygen reversibly by coordinate bond to complete the octahedral group of six ligands (Wiki Premed,

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research Paper - 1

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Research Paper Example The article highlights various studies that are being carried out to recognize the conditions and also the means adopted to deal with ADHD cases. Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder popularly called as ADHD, is a developmental, neurobiological state characterized by the existence of strict and persistent signs of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impetuosity (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 1994). A child displaying symptoms of ADHD portray the high level of distraction, impulsive temperament and hyperactivity behavior. This is well documented between the age of 6 months to 7 years (APA, 1994). There is a behavior difference prevalent between the ADHD and normal individual. In case of ADHD individuals, a very short span of attention is observed, they are less attentive and distract very easily. They are therefore not able to focus on their work for a given length of time instead they display hyperactivity or disruptive temperament. The child also shows prop ensity of doing work without thinking which may fetch danger for the child. Moreover such children get frustrated very easily and show short temperament, such children lack concentration in the class and therefore show poor academic performance. In sports they display impatience and cannot wait for their turn and never go with the rules rather they have their own ways. Such children are more prone to the injuries and accidents (ADHD). ADHD individuals display co-morbid issues as around 30-50% individuals have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as they display conduct disorder (CD) as well as 20-30% ADHD cases show signs of anxiety while 11 to 22% ADHD individuals display bipolar disorder (Biederman, 1991). Neuro-imaging of ADHD cases display diminished prefrontal cortex thereby they lack in executing prefrontal functions and therefore they have reduced operational memory (Hill, 2002). Schachar et al, (2000) defined ADHD as "a disorder of dysregulation of thoughts and action s associated with poor inhibitory control. The incidence of ADHD is more prevalent in boys as compared to girls. It shows the sign of inheritance as it runs in family (ADHD). ADHD individuals display incapability in their reading, writing and mathematical skills. On the other hand if ADHD is associated with CD then the condition may worsen further as the issues are not confined to academics, instead they are associated with offending or disposition of criminal temperament (Daley, 2010) . According to Daley et al, (2010), there exists a correlation between academic performance as well as executive functioning. Children with ADHD along with poor EFs display poor performance in their academics in contrast to the children with ADHD and adequate executive functioning. When the results were compared with controls then poor EF does not found any co-relation with the academic accomplishments, suggesting that prevailing symptoms of ADHD and essential cognitive shortfalls and not co-morbid be havior predicaments are responsible for academic mutilation. Academic intervention suggests that academic performance does not appear to be associated to co-morbid behavior

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Global Operation and Risks Management Study of Britvic Group Plc (Ro) Essay

Global Operation and Risks Management Study of Britvic Group Plc (Ro) - Essay Example With the strong position of the company in the beverage industry, this report assesses the financial position of the company and risk management systems employed by the Britvic. Comparative assessment of the performance of the company is gauged by developing comparative competitors’ analysis (Pinto, et al., 2010), and ratio based assessment (Fabozzi, and Peterson, 2013). The analysis of the leading competitors concluded that Britvic is comparatively small player as compared to the competitors: Above graphical presentation reflects that Britvic’s share is only 9% of the market but stands on second in a row and Nichols Plc dominate in terms of revenue. However, with respect to EPS performance SabMiller is leading the position and Britvic is pushed last position. Despite limited share as compared to the competitors, the company has improved its performance by controlling operating cost. The net income improved from  £61.9 m in 2013 to  £ 89.7m 2014 (Britivic, 2014c). Given below is the five years trend of the revenue: The revenue fluctuated due to the Fruite’ Enterprise, the recall of the acquisition of Fruit Shoot, and the impact of the recovery measures taken in the subsequent years (Daneshkhu, 2014; Britvic, 2013). In addition, rising operating and net profit is the impact of the cost control programs. The balance sheet has shown mixed trends implying that Britvic is inclined in maintaining the capital structure; except 2010 in which company performance could not offset the losses from retained earnings. Similar movement between the short term and the long term assets is reported as company does not excessively stick capital in any short or long term assets. Company has issued debt of  £105.8 million for the expansion of Fruit Shoot the USA and of operations in India. In addition to this investment of  £40m was done to for achieving costs saving of  £30m by the end of (2016 Britvic, 2013). Net Profit Margin: As the name implies, net

Monday, August 26, 2019

Feminism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Feminism - Essay Example A mothers love led to distinctive ways of thinking and became an important resource to female politics (176). Representing women, she claimed that a mother who trained his/her child on how to uphold peace was a soldier in her own field (Duane and Warren 89). Children would be taught at home and in schools on how to adopt peaceful methods of conflict resolution. Children would be taught at home and in schools on how to adopt peaceful methods of conflict resolution. She gathered most of her data from military families to prove that mothering was a practice and not an obligation (Page 177). Sara relates goals and practices whereby she argues that maternal practices provided peaceful thinking criteria to children. She criticizes the military thought by introducing peaceful maternal care. According to (Duane and Warren 92), children who had knowledge in conflict resolution later became leaders in the society who preached peace and not war. She used feminist related ethics to cause awareness on peace programs (Ruddick 15). Mothers were advised to teach their children ways of preventing future wars. She also requested that men in the battlefield should think like fathers and sons, but not soldiers. She also believed that mothers should look at soldiers as if they were their own husbands and not as cold hearted soldiers (Duane and Warren 92). When men were at the battlefield, they killed each other leading to the loss of fathers and sons in families that they had left back at home. Women, on the other hand, were left lonely and had the sole duty to take care of the children (Walters 60). Ruddick used this opportunity to create awareness and bring maternal ethics in various homes. She suggested that the mothers and teachers should coach their children on the available peace programs in schools (Ruddick 36). They would be ‘soldiers at home who would lead to a peaceful generation, which would not lead to any deaths (Walters 82). She

Sunday, August 25, 2019

A crime in English Law and Canadian Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

A crime in English Law and Canadian Law - Essay Example These two elements are actus reus and mens rea. It is important to note that concurrence of these two elements is mandatory to prove any offence. While existence of these two elements is common in English and Canadian laws, there are some major differences when it comes to their interpretation in these two laws. In order to analyze definition of crime in English and Canadian laws, developing understanding of actus reus and mens rea is imperative. There are varied definitions of crime present in different national and international laws. However, the most recurrent definition is given by Blackburn (1993, p. 5) which defines crime to be â€Å"acts attracting legal punishment that are injurious in some way to the community at large or one or more people within it†. Another Canadian version of this definition is provided by Tappan (1960) which defines crime as â€Å"an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law (statutory or case law), committed without defense or j ustification, and sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor (Haggan, 2011).† It is important to note that a crime will only be considered as committed if there is actus reus (guilty act carried out voluntarily) and mens rea (guilty mind leading to intention of committing the act) (Boyd, 2010). Therefore, mens rea and actus reus are the major elements of criminal law. Hence, a crime is a breach of rules defined by the state or any other governing authority. Most of the crimes are considered as offences against the state and community. The definition of crime under Canadian law is relatively similar to the one prevailing in English law. Therefore, the crime occurs when an individual breaches criminal law prevailing in the state voluntarily and with guilty mind (actus reus and mens rea respectively). Both laws also presume innocence of the accused until unless proven guilty. However, Canadian law levies burden of proof on the crown counsel in Canada (Boyd, 2010). There i s also slight variation in the elements of these two laws. In English criminal law, actus Reus and mens rea form the main elements of law. Omission of intent is a third element which is referred to as strict liability. However, in many cases, the criminal intentions are not required to be shown. In such cases, strict liability is applied. On the other hand, elements of Canadian criminal law includes actus reus, mens rea, special circumstances leading to incomplete offences, aiding and assisting in crime (Boyd, 2010). As far as criminal liability is concerned, it forms part of product liability law instead of criminal law. In order to understand differences between these two major elements of criminal law, it is important to analyze how English and Canadian laws consider actus reus and mens rea individually. The origin for actus reus and mens rea is English law and it is adapted in Canadian version of criminal law and other parts of the world as well. Actus Reus itself is a Latin for guilty act and is considered as mandatory criterion for criminal offence. It is important to note that actus reus defines all the elements of an offence other than mens rea which defines one’s state of mind. Actus Reus’ severity is defined by circumstances in which the offence has taken place or its consequences. Hence, the act has to be voluntary and willfully committed in order to fulfill the condition of Actus Reus. There are four types of crimes on the basis of actus Reus which are actions crimes i.e. conduct, state of affairs crimes, result crimes and omission. Actions crimes take place when the consequences of the acts are immaterial. State of affairs

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Are Sweatshops an Inhumane Business Practice Essay

Are Sweatshops an Inhumane Business Practice - Essay Example The no side claims that they believe coercion exists in these types of workplaces, but working overtime is not a form of intimidation disproving Arnold and Bowie’s claim that it is (Sollars & Englander, 2007, p. 317). For each claim Arnold and Bowie makes towards sweatshops being inhumane, Sollars and Englander present valid counterarguments for minimum health and safety standards and upholding local labor laws. The claim these men make comes down to the right of the individual companies to set their own standards based on their companies mission rather than forcing all companies to uphold an unattainable standard. 2. This issue receives a lot of debate for a reason; there is no clear answer as to the manner of removing the negative characteristics, which make the workplace a sweatshop. Sollars and Englander make that point often in their response, there are many complex issues involved in these workplaces. In fact, the argument of Arnold and Bowie appears naive at times with its basis on respect and dignity without considerations to all the factors that hinder the changes from occurring. There are many issues to address in setting wages in another country that require consideration and not all of them deal with trying to purposely pay too little for too much work. Placing respect as the main reason for setting higher wages is not something possible in all cases and placing an imperative order on all MNE to pay more out of respect fails to address these issues. The first and most important factor is the costs the consumers are willing to pay for the products from the sweatshops. Yes, there are companies such as NIKE where the costs the consumers pay, considered... This issue receives a lot of debate for a reason; there is no clear answer as to the manner of removing the negative characteristics, which make the workplace a sweatshop. Sollars and Englander make that point often in their response, there are many complex issues involved in these workplaces. In fact, the argument of Arnold and Bowie appears naà ¯ve at times with its basis on respect and dignity without considerations to all the factors that hinder the changes from occurring. There are many issues to address in setting wages in another country that require consideration and not all of them deal with trying to purposely pay too little for too much work. Placing respect as the main reason for setting higher wages is not something possible in all cases and placing an imperative order on all MNE to pay more out of respect fails to address these issues. The first and most important factor is the costs the consumers are willing to pay for the products from the sweatshops. Yes, there are companies such as NIKE where the costs the consumers pay, considered very high compared to another brand found in a local discount store. Customers are willing to pay for the name recognition. However, NIKE addressed this issue of sweatshops but not out of respect or a desire to give their workers in these sweatshops a sense of dignity. The public outcry was enough to force them to adjust their manner of doing business.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Juvenile Justice - School Influence Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Juvenile Justice - School Influence - Assignment Example Programs such as abolish chronic truancy (ACT) are effective truancy prevention program in schools. ACT targets children in grade K-6. Â  ACT progressively involves both the child and the parents in an effort to make them be accountable. The first step in this program is the school administration engaging parents, who show truancy behaviors at school. In the presence of the deputy district attorney, community-based organizations and school staff, the parents are invited to attend a meeting, together with their children. The program aims at improving character among children through collaboration between parents and instructors. Â  In case of no reforms in behavior, parents of the affected child are required to attend a review team meeting at the school. At this step, the review team undertakes identification of specific problems of the child. Parents should commit to being actively involved in ensuring the child adheres to attendance rules. The review board for that probe the student’s attendance is the next step for children with further problems after the SART. If all the measures are unsuccessful to prevent truancy expressed through the child’s behavior.

The market and Krispy Kreme Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

The market and Krispy Kreme - Essay Example The paper tells that a worldwide doughnut company was born in an old building on July 13, 1937. Krispy Kreme was established in Winston-Salem, North Carolina by Vernon Rudolph. Then just a store, Krispy Kreme used a classified recipe for yeast-raised doughnuts. Because of the very appealing aroma of freshly cooked doughnuts, mere passers-by would inquire to ask if they can have an order of the freshly cooked treat. With such request from customers, Rudolph then put a hole on an outside wall of the store to make the fresh and hot Krispy Kreme doughnut more accessible to its buyers. Most of the time, it is the product’s consistency whether in taste or in quality that appears to be the problem. Krispy Kreme is not an exemption to this inconsistency. For the company to be able to hurdle over this hindrance in quality, Krispy Kreme constructed a mixing plant and a distributing system that will deliver the perfect Krispy Kreme doughnut mix. The company did not just bring an original yeast-raised doughnut to the market but also a technology that will increase product consistency in its stores. The 1940s and 50s were the decades that Rudolph and his equipment engineers created Krispy Kreme’s own doughnut-making machineries. Even if the company was just starting to expand its market across the state, it was pretty obvious that Vernon Rudolph cared about the quality of the products that his company will be giving out to its market. This proves that the company is putting their customers first and not just the amount of money the company can make. As long as the customers are happy, the satisfaction that the doughnuts are bringing to its patrons will equate to the company’s well-earned income. The quality consistency hurdle was surpassed by the company. Although, it was considered as a challenge since Krispy Kreme was just starting its ground on broader market, the problem was properly addressed by Rudolph and a contingency plan was made to ensure tha t the public and the patrons of the products will get the quality products that they deserve. Delivering the mixture on a daily basis increased the expenses of the company. To cut the expenses being brought by the regular transportation of the mixture, Rudolph together with his equipment engineers developed Krispy Kreme’s own doughnut-making machineries. It was a wise marketing strategy in ensuring the quality of the products that are being produced by the different stores and still be able to achieve the desired profit out of the stores. A decade was dedicated to further develop and systematize the whole doughnut-making process (KrispyKreme.Com, 2009; David & Musa, 2008, p. 26). The first international Krispy Kreme store was opened on December 2001 in Canada near Toronto. The company further expanded its market to Australia and Europe in 2003. Asia, Southern America and the Middle East were the next markets that the doughnut company explored. Krispy Kreme Doughnuts (KKD) was able to expand their markets in 5 continents in less than a decade. KKD has a total of 123 stores in 5 continents by the 28th of January 2007. Two hundred thirty nine KKD factory stores and 33 satellite stores were operating giving a total of 272 stores nationwide (KrispyKreme.Com, 2009; David & Musa, 2008, p. 27). KKD then focused more on the markets in Asia and the Middle East. Demographically, KKD perceives that these 2 locations will be more favorable for its products. Asia and the Middle East have high consumptions of sweet goods which will work pretty well for the company’s signature products. It has also been noted that Western products have high popularity in these Eastern locations. The future success of KKD in these places given the fore mentioned facts appears to be very promising (David & Musa, 2008, p. 27). The Asian and Middle East markets is showing very good potential with regards to KKD’s success. There is one market that the company

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Prose Text Assignment Of Mice and Men Essay Example for Free

Prose Text Assignment Of Mice and Men Essay Of Mice and Men is about two basic needs the need for companionship and the need to have something to look forward to. I agree the above statement, all of the characters in the story all experience some form of loneliness. Every one of the characters has a different dream in each one is trying to fulfil it in a different way. The story of Of Mice and Men was set in the period of American history called the Depression. This period of history lasted from roughly from 1930 to the start of World War 2 (1939). In this period nearly all the companies and banks went bust the stock market crashed and peoples savings disappeared when the banks closed. People very suddenly where very poor. Most people where unemployed, and with unemployment came poverty, hunger and homelessness. It was very difficult to buy food or pay the rent. In America during the Depression men travelled in order to find work. Few travelling men could form lasting friendships because they had to keep moving on. A man travelling alone was more vulnerable to being attacked imprisoned or just very lonely. Of Mice and Men is a story based on two men who travel America together looking for work. George travels with his mentally handicapped friend called Lennie. The pair of them has nothing of their own, only the clothes they stand in and each other. Together they share a dream, that one day they will own some land of their own. They find work in a ranch in Satinas Valley, California. They meet of few people on the ranch but find it hard to make new friends. Their dream is soon ruined as Lennie misunderstands the difference between love and cruelty and becomes a victim of his own strength and power. He becomes friends with the only women on the ranch and forms a good friendship with Curleys Wife. Their friendship soon turns to love and they start to develop a physical relationship, Lennie doesnt know his own strength and grabs hold of her to hard and strangles her. Everyone finds out and Lennie is threatened with the prospect of being locked up in a mental institution or being executed by the government, so George saves him from this by shooting him. Crookes works as the sable buck hand on the ranch. He first appears in the story on pages 66-82. He is a crippled old man who gets his name from the way his spines bends (crooked). He has deep eyes and looks intense with his face, which is lean and wrinkled. On the ranch he is of a minority as he is the only black person on the ranch, which means he suffers a lot of prejudice remarks from other people. He is a very lonely man, and can often be bitter towards people he doesnt trust. Particularly white people, as hes not sure he can trust them. Crookes has is own room on the ranch, as none of the other men want him to stop in the bunkhouse. The only person Crookes can talk to is Lennie, although Lennie doesnt understand what he is saying as he is mentally handicapped. Crookes seems to like tormenting Lennie and sometimes says some very nasty things to him. Crookes however has more possessions than the other men has he has been on the ranch nearly all his life. He has little money but still has managed to gather some things of his own e.g. books and a dictionary. He is a very proud man and doesnt like to ask anyone for anything, even though he is crippled he still manages to keep his room neatly swept and is quite aloof. Crookes suffers from a lot of loneliness, as he is the only black person on the ranch. However he often has the chance to avoid loneliness but rejects it, Lennie tries to speak to him and befriend him but instead of trying to make friends he wallows in self-pity. He is very critical of other people an their dreams and hopes. He tells Candy he will help him fulfil his dreams, but afterwards when he has built his hopes up he tells him he was messing around and wont help him at all. He has probably spent all of his life on the ranch and thinks there is no way for him to leave, so he has given up hope and lost ambition. George along with Lennie is the main character in the story. He is a short man but is very quick. He is dark of the face and has eyes, which appear very restless. He is described as sharp and strong with body parts that are small and strong. His arms are slender and strong and he has a thin boney nose. George wears the same clothes as his companion Lennie; black hats, denim trousers and coat, and carries a blanket over his shoulder. George is rather a unsung hero of the story, he certainly lacks no courage. He has looked after Lennie for a long time, and spares his friend from loneliness. He stops Lennie from being locked up in a mental institution or being executed by the state government. He shoots Lennie but for his own good. Some people may think he did it for selfish reasons as h has looked after Lennie for a long time and is fed up of him. He did it because he cares about Lennie and didnt want him to suffer loneliness and depression. He cares about Lennie and saved him from what he knows would be worse than death. George would have probably been able to make a good life for himself if it wasnt for Lennie. George is an intelligent good thinking man, who is very sensible and used to taking charge. He cares a lot about Lennie and is always looking out for him, he is very cautious and warns Lennie about drinking the dirty pond water and tells him to be careful of the bedding at the bunkhouse in case he catches lice. George accepted the burden of looking after Lennie when Lennie Aunt Clara asked him. Without Lennie George would be very lonely, he and Lennie share a big brother-little brother kind of relationship. George has loyally stuck by Lennie throughout everything and having someone to look after and that depends on him makes George feel a better person. Georges longs for independence and would love to be his own boss. George is a kind hearted and compassionate person he sometimes gets frustrated but doesnt have a bad temper. He is very careful on who he trusts and is very careful when he meets people. He has to be a good judge of character and know who to trust and who not to, because of his and Lennies past. George is kind to everyone but he hates Curley he knows that he is nothing more than a bully. He tells Lennie to keep away from him as they cant afford to loose their jobs. However he encourages Lennie to stand up for himself against him. The only thing in life holding him back is Lennie. Lennie is a big man; he has a shapeless face and big pale eyes. He walks slowly but heavily, emphasising how slow his mind is. He has very strong instincts and has bad feeling about staying at the ranch and pleads with George for them to leave. He shows a cunning side and often uses it in getting his own way with George. In the first part of the story Lennie shows us this by using emotional blackmail. George looses his temper so Lennie tells him he is going to live in the woods alone, so George feels sorry for him so he tells him to come back. Lennie has a lot of animal-like qualities, which shows us his strength. He looks up to George like a father or big brother and often copies his ways. As Lennie is mentally handicapped he is unaware of the he is a victim of prejudice remarks and is unable to elate to many people, this often makes his behaviour childlike. Lennie would rather have the company of animals. However is his made to be a likeable character, Candy likes him and even Crookes warms to him. Lennie doesnt understand he needs to be careful with fragile things and is very heavy handed and doesnt learn from his mistakes. He reacts very much like a child and often panics. Lennies major problem is that he doesnt know the consequences of his own strength. Lennie doesnt understand loneliness but if he knew what it meant then he would probably be very lonely but because he is mentally handicapped he has no understanding of this feeling. He understands the need to have something important to look forward to. Lennies dream is very important to him; he nearly knows it all his self. He his always-getting George to tell it him over and over again like a child who loves to be told a bedtime story. At the end of the story Lennie has two hallucinations, one with his Aunt Clara in and the other with a giant rabbit in. This could be the authors way of outlining the abuse Lennie has suffered through his life. Or it could be Lennie conscience telling him that he has done wrong, even though he doesnt understand how it was wrong. Curleys wife is an important character in the story, but the author is showing ho little the men think of her by giving her no name. She is seen to be nothing more than one of Curleys possessions. When we are first introduced she is dressed up as if she is going out somewhere important when in fact all she is doing is staying on the ranch. She has large lips which are emphasised by the red lipstick she wears, she wears lots of make-up, red nail varnish, red shoes, red ostrich feathers and has her hair fastened back in curls. She wears a lot of the colour red, which shows a lot about her. Red is a colour, which is associated with lots of different things, mainly blood that is a clue, her death is near. It is also associated with danger, which is telling you do not get involved with this person she is bad news. Red is commonly regarded as a sexy colour, she is probably trying to show her self to the men as in the story she is displayed as a Scarlet Women. Often she pretends to be looking for her husband but the men know that she is just looking for an excuse, as she is looking for company, as she is lonely, although the men see it as she is just flirting with them. She is the only woman on the ranch, which is a disadvantage, and often gets little attention from anyone including her husband. Many people may think she has it all a husband and a house, but she is just as lonely if not more than any worker on the ranch. She doesnt think a lot of her husband, which probably means she just married him for the sake of it, the only things they have in common is that their both very selfish. Slim is one of the only people to be kind to her, George feels sorry for her but is worried on the effect she has on Lennie. However her and Lennie get on well and start to develop a physical relationship. Lennie who doesnt know how to be careful with fragile things takes things to far and ends up strangling her. Candy is the first person George and Lennie meet when they arrive at the ranch. He is the swamper, which is like a cleaner, the lowliest job on the ranch. His name is even belittles him, its a girls name. He is a tall man who only has one hand. He is a victim also of prejudice remarks because of his age and disability. He is careful of everyone because he doesnt want people to tease him. He never sticks up for himself, the only time he did was with Curleys wife. He has a lot of dignity, which shows the kind of person he once was. Candy has lots of gossip on everyone, which could be seen as getting is own back on people who has upset him by making comments about people behind their back. He always tells the newcomers the gossip on everyone. He is a lonely person and the only companion he has is an old dog. The animal is old and probably needs to be out down but means a lot to candy as he is so lonely. Candy would love to leave the ranch and when he finds out about George and Lennies plan he wants to help, and offer to give them his savings, which would easily cover the cost of over half the farm. George, Lennie and Candy thought that in only a couple of weeks their dream to leave the ranch and own a farm would come true. All of the characters in this story are lonely the person I think is the most lonely is George. He has no real friends the only person he has to talk to is Lennie but he doesnt fully understand what he is saying.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Sudoku Puzzle Design Algorithms Computer Science Essay

Sudoku Puzzle Design Algorithms Computer Science Essay Our project is called generating, rating and solving Sudoku puzzle. The aim of the project is to design and develop Sudoku puzzle solving program by generate the puzzle with five differences difficulty rating level. The program is able to solve the Sudoku puzzle by using some Artificial Intelligent algorithm. The final year project development period is given two trimester and we divided the development process into two part. The first part is to develop the problem specification, design, generating and study on some Sudoku solving algorithm which to be done by trimester one. Part 2 of the project is developing the complete Sudoku solving program and this part will be done by trimester 2. Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction Sudoku is logic based number-placement puzzle. It designs with 99 grids so that the digits 1-9 appear exactly once in each row, each columns, and each 33 sub grids (also called as blocks) that compose the grid. Each Sudoku puzzle created with a unique solution, which typically means that there is only one correct way to fill in the 81 grids. The aim of the project is to design and develop Sudoku puzzle solving program using the artificial intelligence algorithm. First at all the Sudoku configuration program would be able to generate the puzzle with five differences difficulty rating level, which are very easy, easy, medium, difficult and expert. The program also able to solve the Sudoku puzzle as well as providing the chances of having tips while they achieve the specify condition which could help the player to solved the puzzle when they get stuck. An interesting Sudoku puzzle is the one with the minimal hints given. The puzzle should be generated with a single solution. So, knowledge for the rules of Sudoku is very important which the digit 1-9 need to be appear exactly once in each rows, each columns, and each 33 sub-grid. Then a 99 empty grid need to be created and filled in with the digit 1-9 by following the rules to create a complete puzzle. The next step is to begin removing digits from the completed Sudoku puzzle randomly to create the game. To generate a symmetrical puzzle, we need to randomly remove the singleton from the row, column, or block, following by naked pairs, naked triples, hidden pairs, hidden triples, and pointing pairs accordingly. The techniques used to remove the cells decided the difficulty level of the Sudoku puzzle. Lastly, the program is able to solve the Sudoku game by using the AI algorithm like simulated annealing. 1.2 Problem statement People nowadays always busy for working and cope for the challenges on their life. With the increasing busyness of the life, stress become a common issue that faced by the society. A long term of facing a particular problem will make a people to feel pressure and stress themselves badly. Therefore, they need some break to take their mind off from working materials before they continue to work. Sometimes, a challenges mini game like Sudoku can helps to exercise their brain and reduce stress. Besides, with the fast growing of the technologies today, most people are able to obtain the advance electronic device like PDA, laptop, and so on. So the Sudoku puzzle game is not the game that is only published in the hardcopy such as newspaper or Sudoku book. Therefore Sudoku game can be installed in their electronic device so that they can bring it anywhere. 1.2 Scope Scope of the project is generating the Sudoku puzzle with different difficulty level and solves the Sudoku game. The scope covers: Allow user to select the difficulty level of the Sudoku game. Generate a complete Sudoku puzzle by following the Sudoku rules which are the digits 1-9 appear exactly once in each row, each columns, and each 33 sub grids. Remove cells to create a valid Sudoku games according to the difficulty level that the user selected. Allow user to input the digit 1-9 into the empty cells of the puzzle. Highlight the incorrect input of digit with red colour. Solve the Sudoku games. 1.2 Objectives Understanding the algorithm behind Sudoku puzzle. Identify an algorithm to generate a complete Sudoku puzzle with the rules that the digit 1-9 appear exactly once in each row, each columns, and each 33 sub grids. Identify the ways of removing cells from the complete Sudoku puzzle to create a valid game. Generate Sudoku with different difficulty level. Identify the algorithm to solve the Sudoku puzzle. 1.3 Project Schedule Project Schedule Management Gantt Chart Tasks Activity Start date End date Duration(days) Task 1 Research and study relevant material 7/6/2010 27/6/2010 21 Task 2 Planning development process 28/6/2010 4/7/2010 7 Task 3 Implement Prototype for Generating 5/7/2010 8/8/2010 35 Task 4 Test Program and Fix error 9/8/2010 14/8/2010 7 Task 5 Amends report and prototype 15/8/2010 29/8/2010 14 Task 6 Validate interim report and Submission 30/8/2010 1/9/2010 1 Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Nature of the problem Sudoku puzzle is a famous game among the worldwide. Most of the newspaper has a long history of publishing the Sudoku games such as The Times, Sin Chew Daily, and so on. The games in hardcopy required user to use pen or pencil to finish on the paper and the number of games are limited. So, in this project, a program is created to generate the Sudoku puzzle games. User does not need to use an extra writing material like pen or pencil to complete the Sudoku games. They just need a mouse to interact with the game. Other than that, the program is able to solve the Sudoku puzzle as well as identify the puzzle is solvable and have a unique solution. User also can enter the Sudoku games that are not generated by the program and solve it by using this program. 2.2 Background The origin of Sudoku is from Switzerland (By a Mathematician Leonhard Euler) and then travels to Japan by way of America. Su is the Japanese character with the meaning of number and doku means single. In another word, it called single number which means that for each column, each row, and each sub grid, it can only contain the digit 1-9 without repetition. In this project, we need to consider some important things like the cost that we need, the purpose of this project, the target user of this program and so on. Cost that we need to use is to complete the project in 24 week period. The purpose of this project is to create a program which can generate the Sudoku games with different difficulty level as well as able to solve the Sudoku games. Sudoku is a game that suitable for all generation of the people. The program is able to generate the game in 5 different difficulty levels which is very easy, easy, medium, hard, and expert. Level very easy and easy are suitable for the children, medium is suitable for the adults, hard and expert are suitable for those who are experienced in the Sudoku games. 2.3 Literature Review 2.3.1 The Science behind Sudoku Sudoku is a game of numbers, but it does not have anything to do with mathematics such as addition or multiplication. A Sudoku grid is a special kind of Latin square that named by an 18th century mathematician-Leonhard Euler. Latin square is an n x n matrices that are filled in with n symbols in a way that the same symbols appear exactly once in same row and column. The number of valid Sudoku grids is 6,670,903,752,021,072,936,960 which proved by the use of logic and computers. The minimum numbers of hints that a 9 x 9 Sudoku puzzle can start with and the solution can still remain unique seem to be 17. This mean for any Sudoku which is having the hints that less than 17 will make it cannot guarantee a unique solution. C:UsersVinZDesktop1.pngC:UsersVinZDesktop2.png Figure 1.An example of the minimal hints for a Sudoku puzzles and still guarantee with the unique solution. C:UsersVinZDesktop3.pngC:UsersVinZDesktop4.png Figure 2.An example of a Sudoku game with 16 hints provided and leads to two solutions. To solve a Sudoku puzzle, the most common way is backtracking. First, the program places a number 1 in the first empty cell of the Sudoku puzzle. If the number is compatible with the existing hints, it moves to the second empty cell and place a 1 again. When it encounters a conflict or clash with other existing hints, it erases the number which just placed and enters number 2. If it is invalid again then proceed with 3 or the next legal number. After the legal number placed, it moves to the next cell and start again with number 1. If the number that placed and it is still not compatible with the existing hints is 9 (9 is the largest number in Sudoku puzzle), the program will backtrack and increase the precious cells number by one. After that it moves forward until it is clash with other existing hints and backtracks again. Sometimes the program needs to backtrack for several times before it can move forward. Backtracking technique is good and fast when apply in a program or machine, but a human player need to spend more time to finish the game using this technique. So they used smarter ways for solving Sudoku and generally turn to method trial and error method at last of the solving part. 2.3.2 A Pencil-and-Paper Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzle To solve a Sudoku puzzle, it involve with the widely known concept of matching numbers across cells. In another mathematical point of view, we name it as pre-emptive sets. The most important technique to solve the Sudoku puzzles is based on two things, which are the (i) definition of pre-emptive sets and (ii) the occupancy theorem. A mark up puzzle can help to solve the Sudoku puzzle with more efficiently by writing down the possible number that can be filled into the empty cell. C:UsersVinZDesktopmarkup.png Figure 3.Example of a mark-up Sudoku puzzle. Pre-emptive sets: A pre-emptive set composed of the digits 1-9 and is a set of size m, where: 2 {[n1, n2, , nm], [ c(i1,j1), c(i2,j2), , c(im, jm) ]} Where 1= C:UsersVinZDesktop852.png 3459 459 6 23478 1 2348 234579 24579 2345 Figure 2.Pre-emptive set For example, the figure above consist of a pre-emptive set {[3, 4, 5, 9], [c(7, 1), c(7, 2), c(8, 3), c(9, 3)]} with size 4. Occupancy theorem Suppose that x is a number that listed in the pre-emptive set and it lies completely in one column, or row, or a sub grid, so there can be no occurrence of x for the column, or row, or sub grid that outside of the pre-emptive set. Firstly, the algorithm use method 1 and method 2 to complete the puzzle until it cannot continue further. Method 1 is to figure out the Force cell which is the cell that can be determine by eliminate the impossible number (number that already existed in the same column, row and sub grid) that occupy the cell. Method 2 is to figure out the possible number for the empty cell that can be determined by checking the same number which occupies the cells in the column and row of the sub grid. After that we look for the pre-emptive set from each column, each row, and each sub grid. Try to break it into several smaller pre-emptive set and cross out the number according to the occupancy theorem. For example in Figure 2, the pre-emptive set is {[3, 4, 5, 9], [c(7, 1), c(7, 2), c(8, 3), c(9, 3)]} with size 4, it cross out the number that are not inside the pre-emptive set. In figure 2, digits 8 and 2 in cell c(8, 1) and c(9, 1) can be determined directly after the number had been crossed out. So apply again method 1 and method 2 to figure out other possible number. Clearly then, repeat again the process untill it cannot find out any pre-emptive tes ot until the sudoku puzzle is solved.if the result seem to be violated, then the sudoku game is a unsolable game. Metaheuristics can solve Sudoku puzzles Before the simulated annealing can straightforward, representation, neighbourhood operator and evaluation of candidate solution need to be defined. Representation used to assign each empty cell a value randomly, but every sub gird contain the digit 1-9 exactly once. During the process, neighbourhood operator choose two different non-fixed cells (the cell which filled in by randomly) in the sub grid and swap them. Two of the non fixed cells to be swap must be in the same sub grid to make sure the criterion of each sub grid contain the digit 1-9 exactly once. Cost function used to evaluate the candidate solution by looking at each row and column, and then calculate the number of values that are not present. For example in figure 3, 1 and 2 had repeated two times in the first row, so the score of that row is 2. Note that the complete solution of the Sudoku puzzle will have zero of cost. C:UsersVinZDesktop854.png Figure 3 Here, simulated annealing start with a candidate solution s and a neighbour s. s is accepted if s is better than s (according to cost function) or with the probability: Exp (-ÃŽÂ ´/t), which ÃŽÂ ´ = proposed change in the cost function, t = control parameter (as known as temperature). t, temperature is very important to expend the Simulated Annealing and lead to the success. The initial temperature should allow majority if the moves to be accepted, approximately 80% (according to Van Laaehoven Aart (1987)). During the process, temperature is reduced according to the simple geometric cooling schedule. A formula, = use to make sure the temperature decrease according to the cooling rate. Note that , so the largest value of is less than 1, such as 0.9999. For example, value of is 0.9999 will cause the temperature drop slowly, and the value of is 0.5 will make it drop faster. Furthermore, the use of homogenous Simulated Annealing schema takes the form of a sequence of Markov Chains that generated at the fixed value of t. The t is then changed in-between subsequent chains (Van Laarhoven and Aart, 1987). The value of t here is also very important as it decided the time to explore of the search tree and also the run times. The size of the problem-instance defined by the non-fixed number in the grid where: ml = ml = size of the problem-instance. = the function that indentify the number of cells in the are non-fixed. By using this formula, the value can allow each pair of the non-fixed cells have a good chance to considered at least once per Markov chain.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Importance Of Play Children And Young People Essay

The Importance Of Play Children And Young People Essay The central interest of this essay is to evaluate the role of play in relation to language and communication development. Developmental psychology is the main source to explore and explain this unique interrelation, because it offers vital information about the human behavior. For this reason several developmental theories occur from many scientists such as Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Sigmunt Freud, Albert Bandura and other contemporary scientists, who managed to clarify the aspects of child development from different perspectives. Initially, this essay illustrates the importance of play by describing its categories. Play theories are briefly demonstrated and divided into classical and contemporary. Thereafter, it mentions the characteristics of language through the aspects of two respectful scientists, Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget, in order to understand the correlation between language and play development. It illustrates the existence of nine basic communicational skills and why non-verbal and verbal communication is so important. Also, this essay analyzes research which explains the direct relation between play, language and communication. Through detailed references, the idea that the role of play is salient in childs development is supported. Next illustrates the importance of finger, mime and rhyme play to explain that even the most common games possess a significant role in language development. Last but not least, analyzes how play reinforces the literacy development and finally demonstrates the opinio n of the writer. The Importance of Play Arguably, play is a vital part of the development of children which has many implications in their lives. Despite the difficulty of referring a commonly accepted definition, play is a vital part of the developing child (Sheridan Howard Aldelson, 2011). It is a fundamental action which occurs throughout childrens life and is divided to two categories, free play and structured play. Precisely, free play is an action where the child can choose the rules and the form of play, without the participation and the engagement of an adult. Hence, the child becomes the leader of the play (Tassoni Hucker, 2000). On the other hand, structured play is defined as an action which is directed by adults. Many researchers have claimed that free play offers more opportunities to children for learning than the second category does. At the same time, there are proponents of this view and others who do not adopt this notion. For this reason, Thomas, Howard and Miles proved by a study they conducted, that free play, in other words playful mode play, is capable of fostering childrens ability of learning. They state that through this mode childrens communication is benefited, because that playfulness creates the ability of enhancing miscellaneous types of behaviors. As a result, educational settings use this method to foster childrens language and communication development (McInnes, Howard, Miles Crowley, 2009). It is of importance to mention that there are play theories which are separated into two categories, classical and modern theories of play. Concisely, classical theories consist of the Surplus Energy Theory, Recreational or Relaxation Theory, Pre-exercise Theory and the Recapitulation Theory of play (Sheridan Howard Aldelson, 2011 Stagnitti, 2004 Tassoni Hucker, 2000). Modern theories concluded by the Arousal Modulation Theories of Play, the Psychodynamic Theories of Play, the Cognitive Developmental Theories of Play and the Sociocultural theories of Play. The last category is divided into two sub-categories which are the Play as Socialization and the Metacommunicative Theory (Stagnitti, 2004). Moreover, there are five types of play, which are cited as physical play, play with objects, symbolic play, socio-dramatic/pretence play and games with rules (Whitebread, 2012). The above five types of play help children to expand their abilities not only in language and communication domain, but also in the physical, cognitive, social and emotional development (Sheridan Howard Aldelson, 2011). According to the constant evolution of language and communication, play and its benefits in this domain must be analyzed in depth, in order to evaluate childrens developmental potentials through play. Language and Communication Language is a strong communication tool (Moyles, 1989) which fosters childrens abilities. Through language we can live the past again, evaluate the future and use this vital tool when we face complex situations (Crain, 2000). Also, many developmental theorists tried to explain, how children adopt primal abilities as they grow up and some of them, gave special emphasize to the language and communication development and how is related to play. They evaluate childrens development from birth to adulthood. Vygotsky, claimed by his social constructivism theory, that language is the cultural tool which facilitates the processes of thinking and learning. It was his firm belief that children must comprehend language, in order to interact in the society. Hence, according to Vygotsky, play and language are interrelated (Moyles, 2005). Due to the fact that through play children master communication skills, they interpret the use of objects and imitate the attitudes and the habits of adults (Gray MacBlain, 2012). In addition, he stated that children gain knowledge when they participate in social communication and consequently, they adopt new meanings. Therefore, according to Vygotsky, children act in the zone of proximal development (Whitebread, 1996), which means that every child has limited potential when accomplishing an activity but he can expand his skills with a suitable help (Lindon, 2001). However, another respectful scientist did not lay emphasis, as Vygotsky did, on the importance of language during childrens development. Piaget, a Swiss scientist, stated that language mechanism is used by the young child only to express some basic satisfactions and not to foster more complex functions such as thought and logic (Gray MacBlain, 2012). Furthermore, Piagets opinions did not promote childrens abilities; instead he undervalued them, by applying activities that were too complex for children competences (Whitebread, 1996). On the contrary, some scientists argue that childrens thought, started to function logically as they learn how to use language. This happens because language skills are difficult to be assimilated by young children, but when this gradually occurs, logic develops (Crain, 2000). Nevertheless, Piaget did not support the above notion by mentioning that logic derives from actions (Gray MacBlain, 2012). On the grounds that language is an integral part of communication, it is important to pinpoint some of the skills that children develop in this domain. In other words there are nine basic communication skills. Initially, children learn to request reinforcement, to request assistance, to accept and reject offers. Furthermore, they respond to the order wait or no, they respond to directions, follow a schedule and finally they are able to do a transition from one place to another (Frost Bondy, 2011). For instance, when children pretend to be a patient in a hospital, they learn when they have to wait their turn in order to be examined by the doctor and they give order such as wait, stay, come. Communication is a complex function. Before the emergence of words, children can communicate in a high level before adopting language production and language comprehension (Sheridan Sharma Cockerill, 2008). The above aspect describes the non-verbal communication type which is very important. Newborn babies communicate non-verbally to express their needs. Facial expressions, body language, proto-sounds and perception of feelings are the attributes of non-verbal communication (Whitehead, 1999). Hence, adults start to communicate with children initially non-verbally and secondly verbally. Research argues that conversation between children and adults which contains a large number of open questions is essential because children have the opportunity to respond with spoken language. In other words, when children feel that they are active participants in an adult-child conversation, they feel playful which is salient for the development of language. (Howard McInnes, 2012). Fostering Language and Communication Skills through Play To begin with, studies have proved that there is a strong connection between language and play. A research which had taken place in Japan in 1989, showed remarkable signs that play and language are correlated with each other. Specifically, the four children who participated in this research, were observed twenty times each in a free play mode, where the individual had a passive role. The intention of the study was to analyze early language development and play development (Ogura, 1991). Thus, six features of language were illustrated in order to analyze the findings better. These were the emergence of first words, naming words, vocabulary spurts, word-chains, nonproductive two word utterances and the emergence of productive two-word utterances (Ogura, 1991 p.278). Furthermore, that research divided play to thirteen subcategories. The findings showed that children managed to obtain the ability of naming words because they had been involved in preverbal communication. Also, children be gan to name objects when conventional naming act category of play appeared. Furthermore, words and sounds have a strong relationship each other. It was proved that children through the functional relational manipulation play and the container relational manipulation play, managed to adopt the above important function and the production of first words as well. Moreover, it was stated that the early language development is related to the subsitutional play. Also, this study illustrated that the environment is a major factor in the development of the symbolic play. As a result, language is being influenced by the social interaction. Moreover, childrens vocabulary spurts appeared with the subsitutional play. Word-chains appeared when pretend doll play, subsitutional play and pretend other play took place during the observations. In addition, the fifth language category derived in parallel with planned play and combinatorial symbolic play. The last language category was related to planne d play (Ogura, 1991). Undoubtedly, this paper shows the unique interrelation between language development and play. Researchers evaluated the connection between symbolic play with play materials and symbolic play with play situation. Firstly, during childrens play with unstructured play materials, they found that children who are at the age of three to four years old could imitate the activities of adults. However, in structured play children were able not only to imitate but also to participate slightly in role play. At the age of four to five years old childrens unstructured play evolved and they started to express questions and ideas with the mediate tool of spoken language. On the contrary, in structured play they used more conversation. This study showed that in the first type of play children at the age of five to six used their body language and voice to clarify a situation. Also, both in structured and unstructured play, children preferred to play in sex groups. We can notice that structured materials are better for younger children because they do not offer limitations in their ideas whil e playing. In other words, younger children need to enhance their expressive ideas by playing with structured play materials to be adequately prepared for school (Umek Musek, 2001). At the same time, symbolic play related to play situation showed that phonetic imitation (Umek Musek, 2001 p. 61) is promoted and that at the age of four children use social speech. Moreover, they use social markers, in order to speak like adults (Ervin-Tripp, 1973). Later, at the age of five children used metacommunication in their play. Metacommunication is very important because children can discuss about play. They stop in order to negotiate the next step of the game. Indeed, it promotes dialogue among peers. It is very important because it can be used as scaffolding to childrens language development (Andersen, 2005). According to this study, metacommunication levels are higher when children are older. Moreover, the same study proposes that is better and more helpful for children to play in mixed groups rather than in groups based solely on their age. Hence, children can play in the zone of proximal development. Therefore, they foster their language and communication skills. Aga in, this study shows us that play which is depended whether from materials or situation is correlated with language development. Apart from the above studies there are play activities which enhance language and communication skills. For instance, children are benefited by mime because they develop an alternative thought. This occurs by observing a diversity of individuals demonstrating their thoughts. Consequently, they can think more complicated situations and they are able to express their ideas with an enriched vocabulary. Furthermore, finger play helps children to the counting process (Woodard Milch, 2012). Moreover, rhymes can provide many opportunities in children to enhance their language skills. According to a study, rhyme awareness helps children to recognize phonemes which are very important for reading skills. The sensitivity to rhyme enables children to group words together with the same spelling features (Bryant MacLean Bradley Crossland, 1990). Play fosters Literacy Vygotsky evaluated the role of make-believe play in children development and he argued that literacy is enhanced by play. He describes that children initially act spontaneously when they play, and the process of learning happens with their will. On the contrary, when children go to school they must change their behaviors to a planned and a structured environment. Vygotsky stated that make-believe play is the important mediate tool for children to adopt written language and to succeed in school (Roskos Christie, 2007). Furthermore, drawing is considerable as a necessary action for children. Research has shown that children can expand their graphic vocabularies and they can represent their meanings, which means that through drawing communication is enhanced (Whitebread, 2012). Besides, Vygotskys research has shown that drawings in the early childhood are connected with the ability of writing and spoken language, which means that the meaning of childrens drawings is not only the drawing as a picture but the drawing as an expressive tool of their thoughts (Roskos Christie, 2007). In conclusion, it is worth mentioning, that in childrens play the repetition and the renaming of play materials fosters the ability of the direct relation between words and the objects they portray. The above function is called metalinguistic awareness and it has been proven that it is necessary for written language (Roskos Christie, 2007 p.193). Conclusions It is clear, therefore, that the above essay illustrated the direct correlation between play, language and communication. Despite the fact that, it has been proven that play fosters the learning process, there are still opponents of this view, who state that formal learning strategies are better than playful approaches. However, this essay contradicts the notion of formal learning methods by supporting the opinion, that play does enhance language and communication by citing adequate bibliography to prove that. Children can reach high standards in the learning process of language because during play they are motivated and are not possessed with the feeling of fear (McInnes et al., 2009). To sum up, due to the fact that play has been decreased from school settings, it is salient to ensure that play must exist in the preschool and in the first school years of a child, because a child is always above his average age, above his daily behavior; in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself (Roskos Christie, 2007 p.199).

Monday, August 19, 2019

Analysis of Hamlet by William Shakespeare :: William Shakespeare Plays Hamlet Essays

Analysis of Hamlet by William Shakespeare The play begins on the outer ramparts of Elsinore castle. It is late and Francisco, a guard, is on duty waiting for Bernardo to relieve him from his watch. Francisco is nervous because the previous two nights he and Bernardo have seen a figure who appears to be the ghost of the recently deceased king wandering around. Bernardo approaches, accompanied by Horatio (Hamlet's only friend and confident). Even though Horatio dismisses the idea of a ghost, the guards start to retell the previous nights' encounters. As the guards begin, the ghost appears before them- much to Horatio's surprise. The guards urge Horatio to speak with the ghost. Because Horatio is a student, they feel he should be able to communicate with the ghost, and their previous attempts to talk with it have failed. Horatio's attempts also fail. The scene ends with Horatio stating that he will go and inform his friend Hamlet of these incredible events.Text: Act I, Scene i Act I, Scene ii: This scene opens in contrast to the first scene. The first scene takes place on the dark, cold isolated ramparts; this scene begins in a brightly lit court, with the new king, Claudius, celebrating his recent wedding to his new wife, Gertrude. Everyone in the court appears happy and joyful, except one character who is sitting off to the side. He is dressed in black, the colour of mourning, and does not like what he sees. The lone figure is Hamlet, the main character of the play. He is wearing black because it has been only two months since his father, Hamlet senior the ghost on the battlements, died and he still is mourning his father's death. To further upset Hamlet, Claudius' new bride is Hamlet's mother, Gertrude. Hamlet is upset because his mother married Claudius so soon after becoming a widow. To add to all the injustices Hamlet is feeling at this time, Claudius is also related to Hamlet. Hamlet's uncle is now his step-father and Gertrude's brother-in-law is now her husband. Claudius conducts several pieces of business during the beginning of this scene. He first tries to take measures to prevent a war with Norway, then discusses Laertes' request to leave court and go back to school. Claudius agrees with Polonius, Laertes' father, that Laertes' plan of going back to school is a good one. He gives Laertes permission to go. This familial scene brings Claudius' mind to Hamlet.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Careers In The Military, Audio :: Essays Papers

Careers In The Military, Audio The occupation of an audio engineer can encompass many different areas of music production. From recording bands in the studio, synchronizing audio to film, sound reinforcement, to even developing the latest technology in the audio field. The possibilities are broad and seemingly endless. It is a field that is constantly changing, and qualifications are always increasing. Many don’t realize the commitment, drive, hard work and dedication involved with becoming successful in the field. As well as having the patience and reserve to take the time to get the proper training and gain experience. In audio engineering learning the ropes and basics is the most important part of the job, because they become the foundation of everything that the work in based on. Once one achieves these skills the field of careers available to them can encompass many different areas of the business and society, including the military. Since the Department of Defense is so huge (and active) these days the job opportunities it provides are broad and many. Are there job opportunities in the Department of Defense for audio engineering? Since there really are no books that go into this topic I took the opportunity to interview a person who is in such a position. I was referred to Master Sergeant Michael E. Riley, an audio engineer for the United States Air Force Band of the Rockies. His titles include Premier Band Craftsman/Audio and NCOIC/Audio support. MSgt. Riley is a native of Rochester, New York and had been heavily involved in music as a musician (clarinet) since high school. In 1987, he was accepted into SUNY College’s accredited Sound Recording Technology program and studied under Ros Ritchie. After graduating he worked as a recording engineer and freelance musician. In 1993 he â€Å"auditioned† to be an audio engineer for the Band of the Rockies, after which he was accepted. He chose to make this his career and is now in his tenth year with the organization. The United States Air Force band of the Rockies consists of nine performing groups, these include a marching band, concert band, the Rampart Winds (wood wind quintet), The Falconaires (big band jazz), Solar Winds (clarinet quartet), Stellar Brass (brass quintet with percussion), Blue Steel ((rhythm and blues), and Wild Blue Country (county/blue grass).

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech Essay

On November 6th, 2012, Barack Obama was re-elected as president of the U.S. The following day, Barack Obama held his victory speech. This paper will analyze and comment on an excerpt of that particular victory speech and the key focus of the analysis will be on the rhetorical effects of the speech. By using many forms of rhetorical tools like Anaphora or Tautology, President Barack Obama manages to give a speech that is full of American ideas of life, like the American Promise, the American Dream and the future. The speech is very similar to the one he did in 2008 at the Democratic Convention, and contains many form of repetition and â€Å"between the lines† political views. In the first couple of paragraphs, Barack Obama deliberately begins his sentences with the same couple of words, e.g. â€Å"You’ll hear†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"We want†¦Ã¢â‚¬  or â€Å"That’s†¦Ã¢â‚¬  followed by positive ideas about the USA, Americans or what the future will bring . This is when the first rhetorical tool is used, and Barack Obama uses Anaphora by starting his sentences with the same lines over and over again. This is a great way to make his statements stand out both greater than they are and easier to remember. Moving on from here, Barack Obama talks about the American Spirit, and gives several examples on how the U.S. will have ended the economic crisis and war in a very near future. The future itself is a huge topic in the speech and when talking about it, Barack Obama gently uses as many rhetorical tools as possible to ensure that the message goes through. One of these rhetorical tools is the Apostrophe, for example when he says: â€Å"It’s not always a straight line. It’s not always a smooth path.† But also when he is talking about the union straight from the beginning: â€Å"It moves forward because of you. It moves forward because†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He talks about the union and the future like they were capable of understanding what was said about them, or if they were alive, and once again, Anaphora is used so all these optimistic ideas will stick. All in all, this entire speech is made up, using Tautology at its best: When reading the speech, you get the sense that Barack Obama is just repeating himself of how well he and his country have been doing lately and how bright the future is for everything and everyone. As previous mentioned this speech is very similar to the one he gave in 2008 at the Democratic Convention. One of the paragraphs from the 2008 speech is almost identical to the victory speech four years later. In both of the speeches,  Barack Obama talks about how great, wealthy and powerful the U.S. is, but says that it is because of the American Spirit and not the military or the universities. Overall the speeches are very alike. Both of the speeches mention the American Dream and how every American should follow up to their promise and how the U.S. has made it to a point of no return where moving forward is the only option. If one was to look at the speech and occasion, they’d probably think, that given it is a victory speech to the entire nation, the speech would automatically become neutral. I say this mainly because he, in the speech, addresses everyone: â€Å"And whether I earned your vote or not, I have listened to you†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He is talking to every American, Democratic, Republican – even third parties. Even after considering that, Barack Obama still doesn’t keep the speech neutral as I for one thinks that he should. He manages to put some of his polit ical work into it. This quote is taken directly from the speech, when Barack Obama is talking about a girl, who was about to die from leukemia: â€Å"[†¦] had it not been for health care reform passing just a few months before the insurance company was about to stop paying for her care.† This is a very sensitive area for everybody, and Barack Obama uses that to his advantage by using pathos which makes most of the listeners feel pity for the little poor girl, and at the same time happiness because of what Barack Obama has done for the U.S. This actually leads the Americans to ask themselves a rhetorical question: If it wasn’t for Barack Obama’s health care, would this little girl have died then? Unfortunately, the answer would with most certainty be yes. There are similar points in the speech, not as obvious though, as when he addresses every American, including the homosexual, or gay as they are referred to, which is very much against most of the Republican Americans. The speech itself is just what you’d expect from any reasonable leader in the U.S It is a speech where the American Dream is the biggest topic, when being optimistic about the future and then work a little harder is all there is to save the nation. It is a speech that will promise a greater country, and contains a lot of empty promises, just like in the campaigns. Personally, I believe that if Mitt Romney had won the election, the speech he would have given would have been almost identical to this. Of course, there’re some parts where their political views would be different, but all in all I think the essence and rhetorical layout of a victory speech would be pretty much the same. Just like it were back in 1776 when all of this began.